Literatur

NVL Chronische Herzinsuffizienz

2. Auflage, 2017. Version 3 – Druckversion (PDF ) | Kapitelübersicht | weitere Informationen

1. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Chronische Herzinsuffizienz - Leitlinien-Report, 1. Auflage. Version 2. 2010 [cited: 2017-09-20]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000168. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000168.

2. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Chronische Herzinsuffizienz - Langfassung, 1. Auflage. Version 7. 2009 [cited: 2017-09-20]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000166. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000166.

3. Europarat, Verbindung der Schweizer Ärztinnen und Ärzte, Ärztliche Zentralstelle Qualitätssicherung (ÄZQ), et al. Entwicklung einer Methodik für die Ausarbeitung von Leitlinien für optimale medizinische Praxis. Empfehlung Rec (2001)13 des Europarates am 10. Oktober 2001 und Erläuterndes Memorandum. Deutschsprachige Ausgabe. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 2002;96(Suppl III):3-60. http://www.leitlinien.de/mdb/edocs/pdf/literatur/europaratmethdt.pdf.

4. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV). Beurteilungskriterien für Leitlinien in der medizinischen Versorgung - Beschlüsse der Vorstände der Bundesärztekammer und Kassenärztlicher Bundesvereinigung, Juni 1997. Dtsch Arztebl 1997;94(33):A-2154-5.

5. Qaseem A, Forland F, Macbeth F, et al. Guidelines International Network: Toward International Standards for Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Intern Med 2012;156(7):525-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22473437.

6. Ärztliches Zentrum für Qualität in der Medizin (ÄZQ), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Deutsches Instrument zur methodischen Leitlinien-Bewertung (DELBI). Fassung 2005/2006. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 2005;99(8):468-519.

7. Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Das AWMF-Regelwerk Leitlinien. München: Zuckschwerdt; 2012. http://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/awmf-regelwerk.html.

8. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Nationales Programm für VersorgungsLeitlinien. Methoden-Report 4. Auflage. 2010 [cited: 2017-06-26]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000061. http://www.leitlinien.de/mdb/downloads/nvl/methodik/mr-aufl-4-version-1.pdf.

9. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Chronische Herzinsuffizienz - Leitlinienreport, 2. Auflage. Version 3. 2017 [cited: 2018-04-23]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000408. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000408.

10. Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG). Systematische Leitlinienrecherche und -bewertung sowie Extraktion relevanter Empfehlungen für ein DMP Chronische Herzinsuffizienz. Abschlussbericht. Auftrag V14-01. Version 1.0. IQWiG-Berichte; 342. 2016 [cited: 2016-03-16]. http://www.iqwig.de/download/V14-01_Abschlussbericht_Leitlinienrecherche-und-bewertung-fuer-ein-DMP-Chronische-Herzinsuffizienz.pdf.

11. McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur J Heart Fail 2012;14(8):803-69. DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfs105. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22828712.

12. Ponikowski P, Anker SD, Voors AA, et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2016: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed with the special contribution Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. 2016 [cited: 2017-03-30].

13. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62(16):e147-e239. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.019. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747642.

14. Shea BJ, Grimshaw JM, Wells GA, et al. Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2007;7:10. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-7-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17302989.

15. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Critical appraisal: Notes and checklists. 2006 [cited: 2006-11-24]. http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/checklists.html.

16. Dunham RB. Nominal Group Technique: A Users' guide. Madison: Wisconsin School of Business; 1998.

17. Stinner B, Bauhofer A, Sitter H, et al. Nominaler Gruppenprozess als Konsensusinstrument zur Einschränkung der Therapieheterogenität in einer komplexen "outcome"-Studie. Intensivmed Notfallmed 2000;37 Suppl. 2:30.

18. Murphy MK, Black NA, Lamping DL, et al. Consensus development methods, and their use in clinical guideline development. Health Technol Assess 1998;2(3):i-88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9561895.

19. Hoppe UC, Erdmann E. Leitlinien zur Therapie der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Herausgegeben vom Vorstand der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Kardiologie-Herz- und Kreislaufforschung. Bearbeitet im Auftrag der Kommission fur Klinische Kardiologie in Zusammenarbeit mit der Arzeimittelkommission der Deutschen Ärzteschaft. Z Kardiol 2001;90(3):218-37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11315582.

20. Muth C, Gensichen J, Butzlaff M. DEGAM Leitlinie Nr. 9, Herzinsuffizienz. Düsseldorf: Omikron Publ.; 2006 (DEGAM-Leitlinie; 9).

21. Jackson G, Gibbs CR, Davies MK, et al. ABC of heart failure. Pathophysiology. BMJ 2000;320(7228):167-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10634740.

22. de Simone G, Galderisi M. Quantitation of left ventricular mass and function: balancing evidence with dreams. Ital Heart J 2002;3(10):562-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12478813.

23. McGowan JH, Cleland JG. Reliability of reporting left ventricular systolic function by echocardiography: a systematic review of 3 methods. Am Heart J 2003;146(3):388-97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12947354.

24. Bassand JP, Hamm CW, Ardissino D, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J 2007;28(13):1598-660. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569677.

25. Hamm CW. Akutes Koronarsyndrom (ACS) Teil 2: Akutes Koronarsyndrom mit ST-Hebung. Z Kardiol 2004;93(4):324-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15085379.

26. Lip GY, Gibbs CR, Beevers DG. ABC of heart failure: aetiology. BMJ 2000;320(7227):104-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10625270.

27. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Management of chronic heart failure. Edinburgh: SIGN; 2007 (SIGN Publications; 95). http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/95/index.html.

28. Paulides M, Wojnowski L. Chemotherapeutikainduzierte Herzinsuffizienz. Med Klin (Munich) 2007;102(7):574-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634876.

29. Slordal L, Spigset O. Heart failure induced by non-cardiac drugs. Drug Saf 2006;29(7):567-86. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16808550.

30. Sengupta PP, Northfelt DW, Gentile F, et al. Trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity: heart failure at the crossroads. Mayo Clin Proc 2008;83(2):197-203. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18241629.

31. Yeh ET. Cardiotoxicity induced by chemotherapy and antibody therapy. Annu Rev Med 2006;57:485-98. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16409162.

32. Leitliniengruppe Hessen. Chronische Herzinsuffizienz. Therapie der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Hausärztliche Leitlinie. Köln: PMV forschungsgruppe; 2006. http://www.pmvforschungsgruppe.de/pdf/03_publikationen/herzinsuffizienz_ll.pdf.

33. Hoppe UC, Bohm M, Dietz R, et al. Leitlinien zur Therapie der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Z Kardiol 2005;94(8):488-509. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16049651.

34. Brozena SC, Jessup M. The new staging system for heart failure. What every primary care physician should know. Geriatrics 2003;58(6):31-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813870.

35. Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2005;112(12):e154-e235. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16160202.

36. McMurray JJ, Stewart S. Epidemiology, aetiology, and prognosis of heart failure. Heart 2000;83(5):596-602. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10768918.

37. Hense HW. Fact Sheet Herzinsuffizienz. 2008 [cited: 2012-03-12]. http://www.knhi.de/Kompetenznetz/Publikationen/2008/KNHI-FactSheet200807.pdf.

38. Mosterd A, Hoes AW, de Bruyne MC, et al. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population; The Rotterdam Study. Eur Heart J 1999;20(6):447-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10213348.

39. Roger VL, Weston SA, Redfield MM, et al. Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population. JAMA 2004;292(3):344-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265849.

40. Bursi F, Weston SA, Redfield MM, et al. Systolic and diastolic heart failure in the community. JAMA 2006;296(18):2209-16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17090767.

41. Störk S, Angermann CE. Das Interdisziplinäre Netzwerk Herzinsuffizienz. Versorgungsforschung und Krankheitsmanagement. 2007 [cited: 2012-03-12]. http://wido.de/fileadmin/wido/downloads/pdf_ggw/wido_ggw_aufs2neu_0107.pdf.

42. Neumann T, Biermann J, Erbel R, et al. Heart failure: the commonest reason for hospital admission in Germany: medical and economic perspectives. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009;106(16):269-75. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19547628.

43. Stewart S, MacIntyre K, Capewell S, et al. Heart failure and the aging population: an increasing burden in the 21st century? Heart 2003;89(1):49-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12482791.

44. Angermann CE. Comorbidities in Heart Failure: A Key Issue. Eur J Heart Fail 2009;8(Suppl 1):i5-i10.

45. Rutledge T, Reis VA, Linke SE, et al. Depression in heart failure a meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48(8):1527-37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17045884.

46. Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, et al. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure. JAMA 1996;275(20):1557-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8622246.

47. Wilhelmsen L, Rosengren A, Eriksson H, et al. Heart failure in the general population of men - morbidity, risk factors and prognosis. J Intern Med 2001;249(3):253-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11285045.

48. He J, Ogden LG, Bazzano LA, et al. Risk factors for congestive heart failure in US men and women: NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(7):996-1002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295963.

49. Ho KK, Pinsky JL, Kannel WB, et al. The epidemiology of heart failure: the Framingham Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22(4 Suppl A):6A-13A. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8376698.

50. Rosen BD, Saad MF, Shea S, et al. Hypertension and smoking are associated with reduced regional left ventricular function in asymptomatic: individuals the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47(6):1150-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16545644.

51. Eriksson H, Svardsudd K, Larsson B, et al. Risk factors for heart failure in the general population: the study of men born in 1913. Eur Heart J 1989;10(7):647-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2788575.

52. Fox KF, Cowie MR, Wood DA, et al. Coronary artery disease as the cause of incident heart failure in the population. Eur Heart J 2001;22(3):228-36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11161934.

53. Aronow WS, Ahn C. Incidence of heart failure in 2,737 older persons with and without diabetes mellitus. Chest 1999;115(3):867-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084505.

54. Bell DS. Heart failure: the frequent, forgotten, and often fatal complication of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26(8):2433-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12882875.

55. Verdecchia P, Angeli F, Gattobigio R, et al. Asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in essential hypertension: prevalence, determinants, and prognostic value. Hypertension 2005;45(3):412-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15655115.

56. Mamun AA, Peeters A, Barendregt J, et al. Smoking decreases the duration of life lived with and without cardiovascular disease: a life course analysis of the Framingham Heart Study. Eur Heart J 2004;25(5):409-15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15033253.

57. Nicklas BJ, Cesari M, Penninx BW, et al. Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic heart failure in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54(3):413-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16551307.

58. Kenchaiah S, Evans JC, Levy D, et al. Obesity and the risk of heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;347(5):305-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12151467.

59. Vallebona A. Cardiac damage following therapeutic chest irradiation. Importance, evaluation and treatment. Minerva Cardioangiol 2000;48(3):79-87. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10838837.

60. Pai VB, Nahata MC. Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents: incidence, treatment and prevention. Drug Saf 2000;22(4):263-302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10789823.

61. Schimmel KJ, Richel DJ, van den Brink RB, et al. Cardiotoxicity of cytotoxic drugs. Cancer Treat Rev 2004;30(2):181-91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15023436.

62. Baker DW. Prevention of heart failure. J Card Fail 2002;8(5):333-46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12411985.

63. Kostis JB, Davis BR, Cutler J, et al. Prevention of heart failure by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA 1997;278(3):212-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9218667.

64. Arnold JM, Howlett JG, Dorian P, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference recommendations on heart failure update 2007: Prevention, management during intercurrent illness or acute decompensation, and use of biomarkers. Can J Cardiol 2007;23(1):21-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245481.

65. Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, et al. Plasma natriuretic peptides for community screening for left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction: the Framingham heart study. JAMA 2002;288(10):1252-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12215132.

66. Heidenreich PA, Gubens MA, Fonarow GC, et al. Cost-effectiveness of screening with B-type natriuretic peptide to identify patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43(6):1019-26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15028361.

67. Latour-Perez J, Coves-Orts FJ, Abad-Terrado C, et al. Accuracy of B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure: a systematic review. Eur J Heart Fail 2006;8(4):390-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16305826.

68. Redfield MM, Rodeheffer RJ, Jacobsen SJ, et al. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration: impact of age and gender. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40(5):976-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12225726.

69. Das SR, Drazner MH, Dries DL, et al. Impact of body mass and body composition on circulating levels of natriuretic peptides: results from the Dallas Heart Study. Circulation 2005;112(14):2163-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16203929.

70. Redfield MM, Rodeheffer RJ, Jacobsen SJ, et al. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide to detect preclinical ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction: a community-based study. Circulation 2004;109(25):3176-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184280.

71. Angermann C, Hoyer C, Ertl G. Abklärung von Luftnot. Clin Res Cardiol 2006;95 Suppl 4:57-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16598607.

72. Arnold JM, Liu P, Demers C, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society consensus conference recommendations on heart failure 2006: diagnosis and management. Can J Cardiol 2006;22(1):23-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16450016.

73. Henshall C, Oortwijn W, Stevens A, et al. Priority setting for health technology assessment. Theoretical considerations and practical approaches. Priority setting Subgroup of the EUR-ASSESS Project. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1997;13(2):144-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9194351.

74. Doust JA, Glasziou PP, Pietrzak E, et al. A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of natriuretic peptides for heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2004;164(18):1978-84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15477431.

75. Davenport C, Cheng EY, Kwok YT, et al. Assessing the diagnostic test accuracy of natriuretic peptides and ECG in the diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract 2006;56(522):48-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16438815.

76. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for the diagnosis and management congestive heart failure. Bloomington: ICSI; 2005 (Technology Assessment Report; 91).

77. Battaglia M, Pewsner D, Juni P, et al. Accuracy of B-type natriuretic peptide tests to exclude congestive heart failure: systematic review of test accuracy studies. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(10):1073-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16717169.

78. Wang CS, Fitzgerald JM, Schulzer M, et al. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA 2005;294(15):1944-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16234501.

79. Wright SP, Doughty RN, Pearl A, et al. Plasma amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and accuracy of heart-failure diagnosis in primary care: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42(10):1793-800. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14642690.

80. Mant J, Doust J, Roalfe A, et al. Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of diagnosis of heart failure, with modelling of implications of different diagnostic strategies in primary care. Health Technol Assess 2009;13(32):1-207, iii. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586584.

81. Zaphiriou A, Robb S, Murray-Thomas T, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma BNP and NTproBNP in patients referred from primary care with suspected heart failure: results of the UK natriuretic peptide study. Eur J Heart Fail 2005;7(4):537-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15921792.

82. Sim V, Hampton D, Phillips C, et al. The use of brain natriuretic peptide as a screening test for left ventricular systolic dysfunction- cost-effectiveness in relation to open access echocardiography. Fam Pract 2003;20(5):570-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14507800.

83. Smith H, Pickering RM, Struthers A, et al. Biochemical diagnosis of ventricular dysfunction in elderly patients in general practice: observational study. BMJ 2000;320(7239):906-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10741999.

84. Hetmanski DJ, Sparrow NJ, Curtis S, et al. Failure of plasma brain natriuretic peptide to identify left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the community. Heart 2000;84(4):440-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10995422.

85. Mueller C, Laule-Kilian K, Schindler C, et al. Cost-effectiveness of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in patients with acute dyspnea. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(10):1081-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16717170.

86. Rottlaender D, Michels G, Hoppe UC. Natriuretische Peptide - wann ist die Bestimmung bei chronischer Herzinsuffizienz wirklich indiziert? Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2008;133(5):196-200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18213553.

87. Fuat A, Hungin AP, Murphy JJ. Barriers to accurate diagnosis and effective management of heart failure in primary care: qualitative study. BMJ 2003;326(7382):196. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12543836.

88. Hoffmann R. Positionspapier zu Qualitätsstandards in der Echokardiographie. Z Kardiol 2004;93(12):975-86. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15599574.

89. Nixdorff U, Buck T, Engberding R, et al. Positionspapier zur Qualifikation und Zertifizierung von Untersuchern in der Echokardiographie. Clin Res Cardiol Suppl 2006;1(S2):96-102.

90. Voelker W. Strukturierter Datensatz zur Befunddokumentation in der Echokardiographie – Version 2004. Z Kardiol 2004;93(12):987-1004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15599575.

91. Dao Q, Krishnaswamy P, Kazanegra R, et al. Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in an urgent-care setting. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37(2):379-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11216950.

92. Januzzi JL, Jr., Camargo CA, Anwaruddin S, et al. The N-terminal Pro-BNP investigation of dyspnea in the emergency department (PRIDE) study. Am J Cardiol 2005;95(8):948-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15820160.

93. Maisel AS, McCord J, Nowak RM, et al. Bedside B-Type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. Results from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(11):2010-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12798574.

94. Maisel A, Hollander JE, Guss D, et al. Primary results of the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT). A multicenter study of B-type natriuretic peptide levels, emergency department decision making, and outcomes in patients presenting with shortness of breath. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44(6):1328-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15364340.

95. Maisel AS, Krishnaswamy P, Nowak RM, et al. Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;347(3):161-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124404.

96. Omland T. Advances in congestive heart failure management in the intensive care unit: B-type natriuretic peptides in evaluation of acute heart failure. Crit Care Med 2008;36(1 Suppl):S17-S27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158473.

97. Nielsen LS, Svanegaard J, Klitgaard NA, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide for discriminating between cardiac and non-cardiac dyspnoea. Eur J Heart Fail 2004;6(1):63-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15012920.

98. Rutten JH, Steyerberg EW, Boomsma F, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide testing in the emergency department: beneficial effects on hospitalization, costs, and outcome. Am Heart J 2008;156(1):71-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585499.

99. Moe GW, Howlett J, Januzzi JL, et al. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing improves the management of patients with suspected acute heart failure: primary results of the Canadian prospective randomized multicenter IMPROVE-CHF study. Circulation 2007;115(24):3103-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17548729.

100. Heart Failure Society Of America. HFSA 2006 Comprehensive Heart Failure Practice Guideline. J Card Fail 2006;12(1):e1-e2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16500560.

101. Nagel E, Bauer W, Sechtem U, et al. Klinische Indikationen für die kardiovaskuläre Magnetresonanztomographie (CMR). Clin Res Cardiol Suppl 2007;2:77-96.

102. Nieminen MS, Bohm M, Cowie MR, et al. Executive summary of the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute heart failure: the Task Force on Acute Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2005;26(4):384-416. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681577.

103. Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Eur Heart J 2008;29(19):2388-442. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18799522.

104. Statistisches Bundesamt. Herzinsuffizienz häufigster Grund für einen Krankenhausaufenthalt in 2006. 2008 [cited: 2012-03-12]. http://www.destatis.de/jetspeed/portal/cms/Sites/destatis/Internet/DE/Presse/pm/2008/03/PD08__095__231.

105. Yancy CW, Lopatin M, Stevenson LW, et al. Clinical presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure with preserved systolic function: a report from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE) Database. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47(1):76-84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16386668.

106. Allen LA, O'Connor CM. Management of acute decompensated heart failure. CMAJ 2007;176(6):797-805. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17353535.

107. Nohria A, Tsang SW, Fang JC, et al. Clinical assessment identifies hemodynamic profiles that predict outcomes in patients admitted with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(10):1797-804. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12767667.

108. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Health Care Guideline: Heart Failure in Adults. 10th ed. Bloomington: ICSI; 2007.

109. Abraham WT, Adams KF, Fonarow GC, et al. In-hospital mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure requiring intravenous vasoactive medications: an analysis from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE). J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46(1):57-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15992636.

110. Baggish AL, van Kimmenade RR, Januzzi JL, Jr. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing and prognosis in patients with acute dyspnea, including those with acute heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2008;101(3A):49-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243859.

111. Januzzi JL, van KR, Lainchbury J, et al. NT-proBNP testing for diagnosis and short-term prognosis in acute destabilized heart failure: an international pooled analysis of 1256 patients: the International Collaborative of NT-proBNP Study. Eur Heart J 2006;27(3):330-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293638.

112. Pfister R, Tan D, Thekkanal J, et al. Welchen Aussagewert hat der kardiale Funktionsmarker NT-pro-BNP fur den Nicht-Kardiologen? Eine Untersuchung an 573 hospitalisierten Patienten mit kardiovaskulärer Erkrankung. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2008;133(12):564-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18335382.

113. Gackowski A, Isnard R, Golmard JL, et al. Comparison of echocardiography and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide for monitoring the response to treatment in acute heart failure. Eur Heart J 2004;25(20):1788-96. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474693.

114. Klein L, O'Connor CM, Leimberger JD, et al. Lower serum sodium is associated with increased short-term mortality in hospitalized patients with worsening heart failure: results from the Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for Exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF) study. Circulation 2005;111(19):2454-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867182.

115. Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF, Jr., et al. Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;287(12):1541-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11911756.

116. Felker GM, Benza RL, Chandler AB, et al. Heart failure etiology and response to milrinone in decompensated heart failure: results from the OPTIME-CHF study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(6):997-1003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12651048.

117. Oliva F, Latini R, Politi A, et al. Intermittent 6-month low-dose dobutamine infusion in severe heart failure: DICE multicenter trial. Am Heart J 1999;138(2 Pt 1):247-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10426835.

118. Sackner-Bernstein JD, Skopicki HA, Aaronson KD. Risk of worsening renal function with nesiritide in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. Circulation 2005;111(12):1487-91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15781736.

119. Sackner-Bernstein JD, Kowalski M, Fox M, et al. Short-term risk of death after treatment with nesiritide for decompensated heart failure: a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2005;293(15):1900-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15840865.

120. Travers B, O'Loughlin C, Murphy NF, et al. Fluid restriction in the management of decompensated heart failure: no impact on time to clinical stability. J Card Fail 2007;13(2):128-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17395053.

121. Cotter G, Metzkor E, Kaluski E, et al. Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high-dose furosemide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema. Lancet 1998;351(9100):389-93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9482291.

122. Publication Committee for the VMAC Investigators (Vasodilatation in the Management of Acute CHF). Intravenous nesiritide vs nitroglycerin for treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;287(12):1531-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11911755.

123. Lee G, DeMaria AN, Amsterdam EA, et al. Comparative effects of morphine, meperidine and pentazocine on cardiocirculatory dynamics in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Med 1976;60(7):949-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/937355.

124. Swedberg K, Cleland J, Dargie H, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2005;26(11):1115-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15901669.

125. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP). S3-Leitlinie. Nichtinvasive Beatmung als Therapie der akuten respiratorischen Insuffizienz. 2008 [cited: 2008-11-20]. http://www.uni-duesseldorf.de/AWMF/ll/020-004l.pdf.

126. Michalsen A, König G, Thimme W. Preventable causative factors leading to hospital admission with decompensated heart failure. Heart 1998;80(5):437-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9930040.

127. National Heart Foundation of Australia, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of chronic heart failure in Australia, 2006. 2006 [cited: 2012-03-12]. http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/information-for-professionals/Clinical-Information/Pages/heart-failure.aspx.

128. Nieminen MS, Brutsaert D, Dickstein K, et al. EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II): a survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population. Eur Heart J 2006;27(22):2725-36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17000631.

129. Opasich C, Rapezzi C, Lucci D, et al. Precipitating factors and decision-making processes of short-term worsening heart failure despite "optimal" treatment (from the IN-CHF Registry). Am J Cardiol 2001;88(4):382-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11545758.

130. Brunner-La Rocca HP, Leibundgut G. Intensiv-medizinische Behandlung der fortgeschrittenen Herzinsuffizienz. Kardiovask Med 2007;10:11-20.

131. Costanzo MR, Guglin ME, Saltzberg MT, et al. Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics for patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(6):675-83. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17291932.

132. Rogers HL, Marshall J, Bock J, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of the renal effects of ultrafiltration as compared to furosemide in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. J Card Fail 2008;14(1):1-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18226766.

133. Butler J, Forman DE, Abraham WT, et al. Relationship between heart failure treatment and development of worsening renal function among hospitalized patients. Am Heart J 2004;147(2):331-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14760333.

134. Forman DE, Butler J, Wang Y, et al. Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43(1):61-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14715185.

135. Neuberg GW, Miller AB, O'Connor CM, et al. Diuretic resistance predicts mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Am Heart J 2002;144(1):31-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12094185.

136. Binanay C, Califf RM, Hasselblad V, et al. Evaluation study of congestive heart failure and pulmonary artery catheterization effectiveness: the ESCAPE trial. JAMA 2005;294(13):1625-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16204662.

137. Juenger J, Schellberg D, Kraemer S, et al. Health related quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with other chronic diseases and relation to functional variables. Heart 2002;87(3):235-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11847161.

138. Murray SA, Boyd K, Kendall M, et al. Dying of lung cancer or cardiac failure: prospective qualitative interview study of patients and their carers in the community. BMJ 2002;325(7370):929. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12399341.

139. National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (NCC-CC), National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Chronic heart failure. Management of chronic heart failure in adults in primary and secondary care. Clinical guideline No. 5. 2003 [cited: 2012-03-13]. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG5NICEguideline.pdf.

140. Suskin N, Sheth T, Negassa A, et al. Relationship of current and past smoking to mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37(6):1677-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11345383.

141. Cowburn PJ, Cleland JG, Coats AJ, et al. Risk stratification in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 1998;19(5):696-710. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9717002.

142. Mosterd A, Hoes AW. Clinical epidemiology of heart failure. Heart 2007;93(9):1137-46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17699180.

143. Jünger J, Schellberg D, Müller-Tasch T, et al. Depression increasingly predicts mortality in the course of congestive heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2005;7(2):261-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15701476.

144. Anker SD, Ponikowski P, Varney S, et al. Wasting as independent risk factor for mortality in chronic heart failure. Lancet 1997;349(9058):1050-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9107242.

145. Hartmann F, Packer M, Coats AJ, et al. NT-proBNP in severe chronic heart failure: rationale, design and preliminary results of the COPERNICUS NT-proBNP substudy. Eur J Heart Fail 2004;6(3):343-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987586.

146. Evangelista LS, Miller PS. Overweight and obesity in the context of heart failure: implications for practice and future research. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2006;21(1):27-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16407734.

147. Curtis JP, Selter JG, Wang Y, et al. The obesity paradox: body mass index and outcomes in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2005;165(1):55-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15642875.

148. Ertl G, Angermann CE. Therapie der chronischen Linksherzinsuffizienz. Internist (Berl) 2007;48(1):59-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17171382.

149. Large S. Surgery for heart failure. Heart 2007;93(3):392-402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17322524.

150. Lloyd-Williams F, Mair FS, Leitner M. Exercise training and heart failure: a systematic review of current evidence. Br J Gen Pract 2002;52(474):47-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11791816.

151. Piepoli MF, Davos C, Francis DP, et al. Exercise training meta-analysis of trials in patients with chronic heart failure (ExTraMATCH). BMJ 2004;328(7433):189. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14729656.

152. O'Connor CM, Whellan DJ, Lee KL, et al. Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301(14):1439-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351941.

153. Flynn KE, Pina IL, Whellan DJ, et al. Effects of exercise training on health status in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301(14):1451-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351942.

154. Smart N, Haluska B, Jeffriess L, et al. Exercise training in systolic and diastolic dysfunction: effects on cardiac function, functional capacity, and quality of life. Am Heart J 2007;153(4):530-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17383289.

155. Gary R. Exercise self-efficacy in older women with diastolic heart failure: results of a walking program and education intervention. J Gerontol Nurs 2006;32(7):31-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16863044.

156. Gary RA, Sueta CA, Dougherty M, et al. Home-based exercise improves functional performance and quality of life in women with diastolic heart failure. Heart Lung 2004;33(4):210-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15252410.

157. Gary R, Lee SY. Physical function and quality of life in older women with diastolic heart failure: effects of a progressive walking program on sleep patterns. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs 2007;22(2):72-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17541316.

158. Meyer K, Samek L, Schwaibold M, et al. Physical responses to different modes of interval exercise in patients with chronic heart failure - application to exercise training. Eur Heart J 1996;17(7):1040-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8809522.

159. Meyer K. Resistance exercise in chronic heart failure - landmark studies and implications for practice. Clin Invest Med 2006;29(3):166-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17058436.

160. Miche E, Roelleke E, Wirtz U, et al. Combined endurance and muscle strength training in female and male patients with chronic heart failure. Clin Res Cardiol 2008;97(9):615-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18432395.

161. Pina IL, Apstein CS, Balady GJ, et al. Exercise and heart failure: A statement from the American Heart Association Committee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention. Circulation 2003;107(8):1210-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12615804.

162. Bjarnason-Weherns B, Held K, Hoberg E, et al. Deutsche Leitlinie zur Rehabilitation von Patienten mit Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DLL-KardReha). Clin Res Cardiol Suppl 2007;2(3):1-54.

163. Scherer M, Koschack J, Chenot JF, et al. Umsetzung von Allgemeinmassnahmen bei Herzinsuffizienz. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2006;131(13):667-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16555172.

164. Evangelista LS, Doering LV, Dracup K. Usefulness of a history of tobacco and alcohol use in predicting multiple heart failure readmissions among veterans. Am J Cardiol 2000;86(12):1339-42. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113409.

165. Guillo P, Mansourati J, Maheu B, et al. Long-term prognosis in patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure after total abstinence. Am J Cardiol 1997;79(9):1276-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9164905.

166. Jacob AJ, McLaren KM, Boon NA. Effects of abstinence on alcoholic heart muscle disease. Am J Cardiol 1991;68(8):805-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1892094.

167. Nicolas JM, Fernandez-Sola J, Estruch R, et al. The effect of controlled drinking in alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Ann Intern Med 2002;136(3):192-200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11827495.

168. Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (BZgA), Bundesärztekammer (BÄK). Kurzintervention bei Patienten mit Alkoholproblemen. Ein Leitfaden für die ärztliche Praxis. Köln: BZgA; 2007. http://www.bzga.de/pdf.php?id=15b8ff4e612c49ccb5a4cd354e5d6f99.

169. National Heart Foundation of Australia, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Guidelines on the contemporary management of the patient with chronic heart failure in Australia. 2002 [cited: 2012-03-13]. http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/information-for-professionals/Clinical-Information/Pages/heart-failure.aspx.

170. Bohlen JG, Held JP, Sanderson MO, et al. Heart rate, rate-pressure product, and oxygen uptake during four sexual activities. Arch Intern Med 1984;144(9):1745-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6476990.

171. Hauner H, Buchholz G, Hamann A, et al. Prävention und Therapie der Adipositas. Version 2007. 2007 [cited: 2012-03-13]. http://www.adipositas-gesellschaft.de/fileadmin/PDF/Leitlinien/Adipositas-Leitlinie-2007.pdf.

172. Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey SG, et al. Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(1):CD003656. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14974027.

173. He FJ, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3):CD004937. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266549.

174. Colin Ramirez E, Castillo ML, Orea TA, et al. Effects of a nutritional intervention on body composition, clinical status, and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Nutrition 2004;20(10):890-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474877.

175. Holst M, Stromberg A, Lindholm M, et al. Liberal versus restricted fluid prescription in stabilised patients with chronic heart failure: Result of a randomised cross-over study of the effects on health-related quality of life, physical capacity, thirst and morbidity. Scand Cardiovasc J 2008;42(5):316-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18609051.

176. Remme WJ, Swedberg K. Comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure. Task force for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 2002;4(1):11-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11812661.

177. Wenger NS, Young RT. Quality indicators for continuity and coordination of care in vulnerable elders. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55 Suppl 2:S285-S292. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01334.x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17910549.

178. Kuske S, Lessing C, Lux R, et al. Patientensicherheitsindikatoren zur Arzneimitteltherapiesicherheit (AMTS-PSI): Internationaler Status, Übertragbarkeit und Validierung. Gesundheitswesen 2012;74(2):79-86. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1269838. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21229474.

179. Mamdani M, Juurlink DN, Lee DS, et al. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors versus non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and congestive heart failure outcomes in elderly patients: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 2004;363(9423):1751-6. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16299-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15172772.

180. Huerta C, Varas-Lorenzo C, Castellsague J, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of first hospital admission for heart failure in the general population. Heart 2006;92(11):1610-5. DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2005.082388. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16717069.

181. Scott PA, Kingsley GH, Scott DL. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiac failure: meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials. Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10(11):1102-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejheart.2008.07.013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760966.

182. Goldstein RE, Boccuzzi SJ, Cruess D, et al. Diltiazem increases late-onset congestive heart failure in postinfarction patients with early reduction in ejection fraction. The Adverse Experience Committee; and the Multicenter Diltiazem Postinfarction Research Group. Circulation 1991;83(1):52-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1984898.

183. Lapi F, Azoulay L, Yin H, et al. Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study. BMJ 2013;346:e8525. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23299844.

184. Page RL, O'Bryant CL, Cheng D, et al. Drugs That May Cause or Exacerbate Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016;134(6):e32-e69. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000426. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400984.

185. Juurlink DN, Mamdani MM, Lee DS, et al. Rates of hyperkalemia after publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study. N Engl J Med 2004;351(6):543-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295047.

186. Jong P, Yusuf S, Rousseau MF, et al. Effect of enalapril on 12-year survival and life expectancy in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a follow-up study. Lancet 2003;361(9372):1843-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12788569.

187. Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA, et al. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. N Engl J Med 1992;327(10):669-77. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1386652.

188. CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). N Engl J Med 1987;316(23):1429-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2883575.

189. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325(5):293-302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2057034.

190. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med 1992;327(10):685-91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1463530.

191. Cleland JG, Erhardt L, Murray G, et al. Effect of ramipril on morbidity and mode of death among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. A report from the AIRE Study Investigators. Eur Heart J 1997;18(1):41-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9049514.

192. Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE, et al. A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995;333(25):1670-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7477219.

193. Garg R, Yusuf S. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. JAMA 1995;273(18):1450-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7654275.

194. Shekelle PG, Rich MW, Morton SC, et al. Efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers in the management of left ventricular systolic dysfunction according to race, gender, and diabetic status: a meta-analysis of major clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(9):1529-38. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12742294.

195. Flather MD, Yusuf S, Kober L, et al. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. ACE-Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Lancet 2000;355(9215):1575-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10821360.

196. The NETWORK Investigators. Clinical outcome with enalapril in symptomatic chronic heart failure; a dose comparison. Eur Heart J 1998;19(3):481-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9568453.

197. Nanas JN, Alexopoulos G, Anastasiou-Nana MI, et al. Outcome of patients with congestive heart failure treated with standard versus high doses of enalapril: a multicenter study. High Enalapril Dose Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(7):2090-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11127445.

198. Packer M, Poole-Wilson PA, Armstrong PW, et al. Comparative effects of low and high doses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. ATLAS Study Group. Circulation 1999;100(23):2312-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10587334.

199. Mackay FJ, Pearce GL, Mann RD. Cough and angiotensin II receptor antagonists: cause or confounding? Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;47(1):111-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10073748.

200. Kubota K, Kubota N, Pearce GL, et al. ACE-inhibitor-induced cough, an adverse drug reaction unrecognised for several years: studies in prescription-event monitoring. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996;49(6):431-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8706766.

201. Strocchi E, Malini PL, Valtancoli G, et al. Cough during treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Analysis of predisposing factors. Drug Invest 1992;4:69-72.

202. Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Segal R, et al. Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial - the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II. Lancet 2000;355(9215):1582-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10821361.

203. Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, et al. Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both. N Engl J Med 2003;349(20):1893-906. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14610160.

204. Granger CB, McMurray JJ, Yusuf S, et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Alternative trial. Lancet 2003;362(9386):772-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13678870.

205. McKelvie RS, Yusuf S, Pericak D, et al. Comparison of candesartan, enalapril, and their combination in congestive heart failure: randomized evaluation of strategies for left ventricular dysfunction (RESOLVD) pilot study. The RESOLVD Pilot Study Investigators. Circulation 1999;100(10):1056-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10477530.

206. Dickstein K, Kjekshus J. Effects of losartan and captopril on mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction: the OPTIMAAL randomised trial. Optimal Trial in Myocardial Infarction with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan. Lancet 2002;360(9335):752-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12241832.

207. Cohn JN, Tognoni G. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;345(23):1667-75. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11759645.

208. Lee VC, Rhew DC, Dylan M, et al. Meta-analysis: angiotensin-receptor blockers in chronic heart failure and high-risk acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 2004;141(9):693-704. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15520426.

209. Jong P, Demers C, McKelvie RS, et al. Angiotensin receptor blockers in heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39(3):463-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11823085.

210. Heran BS, Musini VM, Bassett K, et al. Angiotensin receptor blockers for heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;4:CD003040. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003040.pub2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22513909.

211. McMurray JJ, Ostergren J, Swedberg K, et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Added trial. Lancet 2003;362(9386):767-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13678869.

212. Dimopoulos K, Salukhe TV, Coats AJ, et al. Meta-analyses of mortality and morbidity effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker in patients with chronic heart failure already receiving an ACE inhibitor (alone or with a beta-blocker). Int J Cardiol 2004;93(2-3):105-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14975535.

213. CIBIS II Investigators and Committees. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353(9146):9-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10023943.

214. Hjalmarson A, Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, et al. Effects of controlled-release metoprolol on total mortality, hospitalizations, and well-being in patients with heart failure: the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF). MERIT-HF Study Group. JAMA 2000;283(10):1295-302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10714728.

215. Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344(22):1651-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11386263.

216. Packer M, Bristow MR, Cohn JN, et al. The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;334(21):1349-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8614419.

217. Flather MD, Shibata MC, Coats AJ, et al. Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients with heart failure (SENIORS). Eur Heart J 2005;26(3):215-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15642700.

218. Krum H, Roecker EB, Mohacsi P, et al. Effects of initiating carvedilol in patients with severe chronic heart failure: results from the COPERNICUS Study. JAMA 2003;289(6):712-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12585949.

219. Erdmann E, Lechat P, Verkenne P, et al. Results from post-hoc analyses of the CIBIS II trial: effect of bisoprolol in high-risk patient groups with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2001;3(4):469-79. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11511434.

220. A trial of the beta-blocker bucindolol in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344(22):1659-67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11386264.

221. Poole-Wilson PA, Swedberg K, Cleland JG, et al. Comparison of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure in the Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362(9377):7-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12853193.

222. Dargie HJ. Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction: the CAPRICORN randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357(9266):1385-90. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11356434.

223. Kaiser T, Jennen E, Sawicki PT. Entscheidungsgrundlage zur evidenzbasierten Diagnostik und Therapie bei Disease Management Programmen für Herzinsuffizienz bei systolischer linksventrikulärer Dysfunktion. 2., überarbeitete Version. Köln: DIeM; 2003.

224. Kotecha D, Holmes J, Krum H, et al. Efficacy of beta blockers in patients with heart failure plus atrial fibrillation: an individual-patient data meta-analysis. Lancet 2014;384(9961):2235-43. DOI: 1016/S0140-6736(14)61373-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25193873.

225. Willenheimer R, van Veldhuisen DJ, Silke B, et al. Effect on survival and hospitalization of initiating treatment for chronic heart failure with bisoprolol followed by enalapril, as compared with the opposite sequence: results of the randomized Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study (CIBIS) III. Circulation 2005;112(16):2426-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16143696.

226. Jondeau G, Neuder Y, Eicher JC, et al. B-CONVINCED: Beta-blocker CONtinuation Vs. INterruption in patients with Congestive heart failure hospitalizED for a decompensation episode. Eur Heart J 2009;30(18):2186-92. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp323. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19717851.

227. Passos LC, Oliveira MG, Duraes AR, et al. Initiation or maintenance of beta-blocker therapy in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure. Int J Clin Pharm 2016;38(4):802-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11096-016-0265-x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27138843.

228. Miro O, Muller C, Martin-Sanchez FJ, et al. BETAWIN-AHF study: effect of beta-blocker withdrawal during acute decompensation in patients with chronic heart failure. Clin Res Cardiol 2016;105(12):1021-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00392-016-1014-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27379611.

229. Prins KW, Neill JM, Tyler JO, et al. Effects of Beta-Blocker Withdrawal in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JACC Heart Fail 2015;3(8):647-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.03.008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26251094.

230. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341(10):709-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10471456.

231. Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F, et al. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2003;348(14):1309-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12668699.

232. Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, et al. Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. N Engl J Med 2011;364(1):11-21. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1009492. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073363.

233. Vizzardi E, D'Aloia A, Giubbini R, et al. Effect of spironolactone on left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes in patients with class I or II heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2010;106(9):1292-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.06.052. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21029826.

234. Hu LJ, Chen YQ, Deng SB, et al. Additional use of an aldosterone antagonist in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013;75(5):1202-12. DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23088367.

235. McMurray JJ, Packer M, Desai AS, et al. Angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition versus enalapril in heart failure. N Engl J Med 2014;371(11):993-1004. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1409077. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25176015.

236. Jhund PS, Fu M, Bayram E, et al. Efficacy and safety of LCZ696 (sacubitril-valsartan) according to age: insights from PARADIGM-HF. Eur Heart J 2015;36(38):2576-84. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv330. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26231885.

237. Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG). Sacubitril/Valsartan - Addendum zum Auftrag A15-60. Addendum. Auftrag A16-29. Version 1.0. 2016 (IQWiG-Berichte; 394) [cited: 2017-04-19]. http://www.g-ba.de/downloads/92-975-1411/Addendum%20zur%20Nutzenbewertung%20des%20IQWiG_Sacubitril_Valsartan.pdf.

238. Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG). Sacubitril/Valsartan - Nutzenbewertung gemäß § 35a SGB V. Dossierbewertung. Auftrag: A15-60. Version: 1.0. Stand: 30.03.2016 IQWiG-Berichte; 379. 2016 [cited: 2017-04-19]. http://www.iqwig.de/download/A15-60_Sacubitril-Valsartan_Nutzenbewertung-35a-SGB-V.pdf.

239. Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss (G-BA). Dossier zur Nutzenbewertung gemäß § 35a SGB V. Sacubitril/Valsartan (Entresto®) Modul 4 A. Erwachsene Patienten mit symptomatischer, chronischer Herzinsuffizienz mit reduzierter Ejektionsfraktion. 2015 [cited: 2016-08-30]. http://www.g-ba.de/downloads/92-975-1312/2015-12-21_Modul4A_Sacubitril-Valsartan.pdf.

240. Novartis Pharma, Rote Liste/Fachinfo-Service. Entresto® Filmtabletten. Fachinformation. August 2016 [cited: 2017-02-22]. http://www.fachinfo.de.

241. Feldman AM, Haller JA, DeKosky ST. Valsartan/Sacubitril for Heart Failure: Reconciling Disparities Between Preclinical and Clinical Investigations. JAMA 2016;315(1):25-6. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.17632. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641736.

242. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Entresto Label and Approval History. 2015 [cited: 2016-08-30]. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2015/207620Orig1s000ltr.pdf.

243. Swedberg K, Komajda M, Bohm M, et al. Effects on outcomes of heart rate reduction by ivabradine in patients with congestive heart failure: is there an influence of beta-blocker dose?: findings from the SHIFT (Systolic Heart failure treatment with the I(f) inhibitor ivabradine Trial) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59(22):1938-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.01.020. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22617188.

244. Bohm M, Borer J, Ford I, et al. Heart rate at baseline influences the effect of ivabradine on cardiovascular outcomes in chronic heart failure: analysis from the SHIFT study. Clin Res Cardiol 2013;102(1):11-22. DOI: 10.1007/s00392-012-0467-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22575988.

245. Fox K, Komajda M, Ford I, et al. Effect of ivabradine in patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from the BEAUTIFUL and SHIFT trials. Eur Heart J 2013;34(29):2263-70. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht101. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536611.

246. Swedberg K, Komajda M, Bohm M, et al. Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled study. Lancet 2010;376(9744):875-85. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61198-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801500.

247. Kosiuk J, Lindemann F, Hindricks G, et al. Need for further studies on ivabradine in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 2016;223:915-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.329. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27589039.

248. Cowie MR. Ivabradine and atrial fibrillation: what should we tell our patients? Heart 2014;100(19):1487-8. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306287. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24986893.

249. Kosiuk J, Oebel S, John S, et al. Ivabradine for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 2015;179:27-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.10.062. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464400.

250. Cammarano C, Silva M, Comee M, et al. Meta-analysis of Ivabradine in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease With and Without Left Ventricular Dysfunction. Clin Ther 2016;38(2):387-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.12.018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839043.

251. Martin RI, Pogoryelova O, Koref MS, et al. Atrial fibrillation associated with ivabradine treatment: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Heart 2014;100(19):1506-10. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305482. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24951486.

252. Servier Deutschland GmbH, Rote Liste/Fachinfo-Service. Procoralan®. Fachinformation. Februar 2015 [cited: 2016-07-17]. http://www.fachinfo.de.

253. Servier Deutschland GmbH. Information für medizinisches Fachpersonal. Procoralan (Ivabradin) – Neue Kontraindikation und Empfehlungen zur Risikominimierung von kardiovaskulären Ereignissen und schweren Bradykardien. 2014 [cited: 2016-07-17].

254. Verordnungseinschränkungen für Ivabradin (PROCORALAN) in Frankreich. Arznei-Telegramm 2016;48(6):54. http://www.arznei-telegramm.de/html/htmlcontainer.php3?produktid=054_01&artikel=1706054_01.

255. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The Digitalis Investigation Group. N Engl J Med 1997;336(8):525-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9036306.

256. Hood WB, Jr., Dans AL, Guyatt GH, et al. Digitalis for treatment of heart failure in patients in sinus rhythm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(4):CD002901. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002901.pub3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24771511.

257. Rathore SS, Wang Y, Krumholz HM. Sex-based differences in the effect of digoxin for the treatment of heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;347(18):1403-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12409542.

258. Ziff OJ, Lane DA, Samra M, et al. Safety and efficacy of digoxin: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational and controlled trial data. BMJ 2015;351:h4937. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374771.

259. Lewis RV, McMurray J, McDevitt DG. Effects of atenolol, verapamil, and xamoterol on heart rate and exercise tolerance in digitalised patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989;13(1):1-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2468920.

260. Bavendiek U, Aguirre DL, Koch A, et al. Assumption versus evidence: the case of digoxin in atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Eur Heart J 2017;(0):1-5. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw577. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28065909.

261. Homma S, Thompson JL, Pullicino PM, et al. Warfarin and aspirin in patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm. N Engl J Med 2012;366(20):1859-69. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1202299. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551105.

262. Lip GY, Ponikowski P, Andreotti F, et al. Thrombo-embolism and antithrombotic therapy for heart failure in sinus rhythm. A joint consensus document from the ESC Heart Failure Association and the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis. Eur J Heart Fail 2012;14(7):681-95. DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfs073. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22611046.

263. Lip GY, Shantsila E. Anticoagulation versus placebo for heart failure in sinus rhythm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(3):CD003336. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003336.pub3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24683002.

264. Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), Encke A, Haas S, et al. S3-Leitlinie Prophylaxe der venösen Thromboembolie (VTE). 2015 [cited: 2016-06-30]. http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/003-001l_S3_VTE-Prophylaxe_2015-12.pdf.

265. Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, et al. VTE, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012;141(2 Suppl):e691S-e736S. DOI: 10.1378/chest.11-2300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315276.

266. Yusuf S, Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial. Lancet 2003;362(9386):777-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13678871.

267. Massie BM, Carson PE, McMurray JJ, et al. Irbesartan in Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction. N Engl J Med 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19001508.

268. Edelmann F, Wachter R, Schmidt AG, et al. Effect of spironolactone on diastolic function and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the Aldo-DHF randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2013;309(8):781-91. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.905. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23443441.

269. Pitt B, Pfeffer MA, Assmann SF, et al. Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2014;370(15):1383-92. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1313731. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24716680.

270. Solomon SD, Zile M, Pieske B, et al. The angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a phase 2 double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012;380(9851):1387-95. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61227-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22932717.

271. Ahmed A, Rich MW, Fleg JL, et al. Effects of digoxin on morbidity and mortality in diastolic heart failure: the ancillary digitalis investigation group trial. Circulation 2006;114(5):397-403. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.628347. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16864724.

272. Heart Failure Clinical Research Network (HFN), Redfield MM, Chen HH, et al. Effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2013;309(12):1268-77. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.2024. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478662.

273. Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD005312. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254076.

274. Cleland JG, Coletta AP, Clark AL. Clinical trials update from the American College of Cardiology 2007: ALPHA, EVEREST, FUSION II, VALIDD, PARR-2, REMODEL, SPICE, COURAGE, COACH, REMADHE, pro-BNP for the evaluation of dyspnoea and THIS-diet. Eur J Heart Fail 2007;9(6-7):740-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17481946.

275. Lalukota K, Cleland JG, Ingle L, et al. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America: EMOTE, HERB-CHF, BEST genetic sub-study and RHYTHM-ICD. Eur J Heart Fail 2004;6(7):953-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15556058.

276. Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, et al. The efficacy and safety of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10(12):1255-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejheart.2008.10.004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19019730.

277. Rastogi S, Pandey MM, Rawat AK. Traditional herbs: a remedy for cardiovascular disorders. Phytomedicine 2016;23(11):1082-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.10.012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656228.

278. Morisco C, Trimarco B, Condorelli M. Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study. Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S134-S136. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8241697.

279. Madmani ME, Yusuf SA, Tamr AK, et al. Coenzyme Q10 for heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(6):CD008684. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008684.pub2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24049047.

280. Sciatti E, Lombardi C, Ravera A, et al. Nutritional Deficiency in Patients with Heart Failure. Nutrients 2016;8(7):422. DOI: 10.3390/nu8070442. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455314.

281. Bharani A, Ganguly A, Bhargava KD. Salutary effect of Terminalia Arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure. Int J Cardiol 1995;49(3):191-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649665.

282. Maulik SK, Wilson V, Seth S, et al. Clinical efficacy of water extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. in patients of chronic heart failure: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2016;23(11):1211-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26988798.

283. The Investigators of the Study on Propinyl-L-Carnitine in Chronic Heart Failure. Study on propionyl-L-carnitine in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 1999;20(1):70-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075143.

284. Rizos I. Three-year survival of patients with heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and L-carnitine administration. Am Heart J 2000;139(2 Pt 3):S120-S123. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10650325.

285. Allard ML, Jeejeebhoy KN, Sole MJ. The management of conditioned nutritional requirements in heart failure. Heart Fail Rev 2006;11(1):75-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16819580.

286. Krim SR, Campbell P, Lavie CJ, et al. Micronutrients in chronic heart failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep 2013;10(1):46-53. DOI: 10.1007/s11897-012-0118-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23070580.

287. Beyranvand MR, Khalafi MK, Roshan VD, et al. Effect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. J Cardiol 2011;57(3):333-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.01.007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21334852.

288. Ye Y, Li J, Yuan Z. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e56803. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056803. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23437244.

289. Jiang WL, Gu HB, Zhang YF, et al. Vitamin D Supplementation in the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Clin Cardiol 2016;39(1):56-61. DOI: 10.1002/clc.22473. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26415519.

290. Alon D, Stein GY, Korenfeld R, et al. Predictors and outcomes of infection-related hospital admissions of heart failure patients. PLoS One 2013;8(8):e72476. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072476. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24009684.

291. Opasich C, Febo O, Riccardi PG, et al. Concomitant factors of decompensation in chronic heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1996;78(3):354-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8759821.

292. Ghali JK, Kadakia S, Cooper R, et al. Precipitating factors leading to decompensation of heart failure. Traits among urban blacks. Arch Intern Med 1988;148(9):2013-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3046541.

293. Fonarow GC, Abraham WT, Albert NM, et al. Factors identified as precipitating hospital admissions for heart failure and clinical outcomes: findings from OPTIMIZE-HF. Arch Intern Med 2008;168(8):847-54. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.168.8.847. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18443260.

294. Robert Koch Institut (RKI). Empfehlungen der Ständigen Impfkommission (STIKO) am Robert Koch-Institut – 2016/2017. Epid Bull 2016;(34):301-40.

295. Vardeny O, Claggett B, Udell JA, et al. Influenza Vaccination in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: The PARADIGM-HF Trial. JACC Heart Fail 2016;4(2):152-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.10.012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26746371.

296. Kopel E, Klempfner R, Goldenberg I. Influenza vaccine and survival in acute heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2014;16(3):264-70. DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464586.

297. Mohseni H, Kiran A, Khorshidi R, et al. Influenza vaccination and risk of hospitalization in patients with heart failure: a self-controlled case series study. Eur Heart J 2017;38(5):326-33. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw411. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27660378.

298. Pletz MW, Ewig S, Heppner HJ, et al. Stellungnahme zur Empfehlung der Pneumokokken-Impfung für Erwachsene Positionspapier der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP) und der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geriatrie (DGG). Pneumologie 2015;69(11):633-7. DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1393413. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26523835.

299. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP), Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie (PEG), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Infektiologie, et al. Behandlung von erwachsenen Patienten mit ambulant erworbener Pneumonie und Prävention. Update 2016. 2016 [cited: 2016-09-22]. http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/020-020l_S3_ambulant_erworbene_Pneumonie_Behandlung_Praevention_2016-02-2.pdf.

300. Pletz MW, Rohde G, Schutte H, et al. Epidemiologie und Erreger bei ambulant erworbener Pneumonie (CAP). Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2011;136(15):775-80. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1275806. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469047.

301. Moberley S, Holden J, Tatham DP, et al. Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(1):CD000422. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000422.pub3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440780.

302. Bonten MJ, Huijts SM, Bolkenbaas M, et al. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med 2015;372(12):1114-25. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1408544. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25785969.

303. Luna CM, Palma I, Niederman MS, et al. The Impact of Age and Comorbidities on the Mortality of Patients of Different Age Groups Admitted with Community-acquired Pneumonia. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016;13(9):1519-26. DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201512-848OC. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398827.

304. Wesemann T, Nullmann H, Pflug MA, et al. Pneumonia severity, comorbidity and 1-year mortality in predominantly older adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 2015;15:2. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-014-0730-x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566688.

305. Welte T, Kohnlein T. Global and local epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia: the experience of the CAPNETZ Network. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2009;30(2):127-35. DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1202941. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19296412.

306. Ren S, Newby D, Li SC, et al. Effect of the adult pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Heart 2015;2(1):e000247. DOI: 10.1136/openhrt-2015-000247. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196020.

307. Silverman ME, Pressel MD, Brackett JC, et al. Prognostic value of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram and a prolonged QRS in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1995;75(7):460-4. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7863989.

308. Fried AG, Parker AB, Newton GE, et al. Electrical and hemodynamic correlates of the maximal rate of pressure increase in the human left ventricle. J Card Fail 1999;5(1):8-16. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10194655.

309. Wilensky RL, Yudelman P, Cohen AI, et al. Serial electrocardiographic changes in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy confirmed at necropsy. Am J Cardiol 1988;62(4):276-83. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3400606.

310. Farwell D, Patel NR, Hall A, et al. How many people with heart failure are appropriate for biventricular resynchronization? Eur Heart J 2000;21(15):1246-50. DOI: 10.1053/euhj.1999.1985. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10924314.

311. Yu CM, Zhang Q, Yip GW, et al. Diastolic and systolic asynchrony in patients with diastolic heart failure: a common but ignored condition. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(1):97-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.10.022. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17207728.

312. Morris DA, Vaz Perez A, Blaschke F, et al. Myocardial systolic and diastolic consequences of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2012;13(7):556-67. DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jes042. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22383372.

313. Santos AB, Kraigher-Krainer E, Bello N, et al. Left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Eur Heart J 2014;35(1):42-7. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht427. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24164863.

314. Shah AM, Solomon SD. Mechanical Dyssynchrony: A Risk Factor but not a Target. Eur Heart J 2016;37(1):60-2. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv458. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324539.

315. Institut für Qualitätssicherung und Transparenz im Gesundheitswesen (IQTIG). Herzschrittmacher-Implantation. Qualitätsindikatoren. Bundesauswertung zum Erfassungsjahr 2015. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-27]. http://www.iqtig.org/downloads/ergebnisse/qidb/2015/2016-05-25/QIDB_2015_INDIREKT_PDF/QIDB_2015_indirekte_Leistungsbereiche/BuAw_2015_INDIREKT/bu_Gesamt_09N1-HSM-IMPL_2015.pdf.

316. Institut für Qualitätssicherung und Transparenz im Gesundheitswesen (IQTIG). Implantierbare Defibrillatoren-Implantation. Qualitätsindikatoren. Bundesauswertung zum Erfassungsjahr 2015. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-27]. http://www.iqtig.org/downloads/ergebnisse/qidb/2015/2016-05-25/QIDB_2015_INDIREKT_PDF/QIDB_2015_indirekte_Leistungsbereiche/BuAw_2015_INDIREKT/bu_Gesamt_09N4-DEFI-IMPL_2015.pdf.

317. Sohaib SM, Finegold JA, Nijjer SS, et al. Opportunity to increase life span in narrow QRS cardiac resynchronization therapy recipients by deactivating ventricular pacing: evidence from randomized controlled trials. JACC Heart Fail 2015;3(4):327-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.11.007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25770400.

318. Cleland JG, Mareev Y, Linde C. Reflections on EchoCRT: sound guidance on QRS duration and morphology for CRT? Eur Heart J 2015;36(30):1948-51. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv264. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26180135.

319. Woods B, Hawkins N, Mealing S, et al. Individual patient data network meta-analysis of mortality effects of implantable cardiac devices. Heart 2015;101(22):1800-6. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-307634. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269413.

320. Zusterzeel R, Selzman KA, Sanders WE, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in women: US Food and Drug Administration meta-analysis of patient-level data. JAMA Intern Med 2014;174(8):1340-8. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.2717. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25090172.

321. Linde C, Stahlberg M, Benson L, et al. Gender, underutilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy, and prognostic impact of QRS prolongation and left bundle branch block in heart failure. Europace 2015;17(3):424-31. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euu205. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164429.

322. Cleland JG, Abraham WT, Linde C, et al. An individual patient meta-analysis of five randomized trials assessing the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on morbidity and mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2013;34(46):3547-56. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht290. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900696.

323. Brignole M, Auricchio A, Baron-Esquivias G, et al. 2013 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Eur Heart J 2013;34(29):2281-329. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht150. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23801822.

324. Cazeau S, Leclercq C, Lavergne T, et al. Effects of multisite biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay. N Engl J Med 2001;344(12):873-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11259720.

325. Cleland JG, Daubert JC, Erdmann E, et al. The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352(15):1539-49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15753115.

326. Cleland JG, Daubert JC, Erdmann E, et al. Longer-term effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on mortality in heart failure [the CArdiac REsynchronization-Heart Failure (CARE-HF) trial extension phase]. Eur Heart J 2006;27(16):1928-32. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl099. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782715.

327. Cleland JG, Freemantle N, Erdmann E, et al. Long-term mortality with cardiac resynchronization therapy in the Cardiac Resynchronization-Heart Failure (CARE-HF) trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2012;14(6):628-34. DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfs055. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552183.

328. Bristow MR, Saxon LA, Boehmer J, et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2004;350(21):2140-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152059.

329. Tang AS, Wells GA, Talajic M, et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for mild-to-moderate heart failure. N Engl J Med 2010;363(25):2385-95. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073365.

330. Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS, et al. Cardiac-Resynchronization Therapy for the Prevention of Heart-Failure Events. N Engl J Med 2009. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723701.

331. Goldenberg I, Kutyifa V, Klein HU, et al. Survival with cardiac-resynchronization therapy in mild heart failure. N Engl J Med 2014;370(18):1694-701. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1401426. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678999.

332. Linde C, Abraham WT, Gold MR, et al. Randomized Trial of Cardiac Resynchronization in Mildly Symptomatic Heart Failure Patients and in Asymptomatic Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Previous Heart Failure Symptoms. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52(23):1834-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19038680.

333. Daubert C, Gold MR, Abraham WT, et al. Prevention of disease progression by cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction: insights from the European cohort of the REVERSE (Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54(20):1837-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.08.011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800193.

334. Linde C, Gold MR, Abraham WT, et al. Long-term impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy in mild heart failure: 5-year results from the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic left vEntricular dysfunction (REVERSE) study. Eur Heart J 2013;34(33):2592-9. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641006.

335. Ruschitzka F, Abraham WT, Singh JP, et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy in heart failure with a narrow QRS complex. N Engl J Med 2013;369(15):1395-405. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1306687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23998714.

336. Steffel J, Robertson M, Singh JP, et al. The effect of QRS duration on cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with a narrow QRS complex: a subgroup analysis of the EchoCRT trial. Eur Heart J 2015;36(30):1983-9. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv242. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009595.

337. Cleland JG, Calvert MJ, Verboven Y, et al. Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on long-term quality of life: an analysis from the CArdiac Resynchronisation-Heart Failure (CARE-HF) study. Am Heart J 2009;157(3):457-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.11.006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249415.

338. Leclercq C, Walker S, Linde C, et al. Comparative effects of permanent biventricular and right-univentricular pacing in heart failure patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2002;23(22):1780-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12419298.

339. Linde C, Leclercq C, Rex S, et al. Long-term benefits of biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: results from the MUltisite STimulation in cardiomyopathy (MUSTIC) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40(1):111-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12103264.

340. Gervais R, Leclercq C, Shankar A, et al. Surface electrocardiogram to predict outcome in candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy: a sub-analysis of the CARE-HF trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11(7):699-705. DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfp074. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19505883.

341. Sipahi I, Chou JC, Hyden M, et al. Effect of QRS morphology on clinical event reduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am Heart J 2012;163(2):260-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.11.014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22305845.

342. Birnie DH, Ha A, Higginson L, et al. Impact of QRS morphology and duration on outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy: Results from the Resynchronization-Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT). Circ Heart Fail 2013;6(6):1190-8. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000380. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995437.

343. Gold MR, Thebault C, Linde C, et al. Effect of QRS duration and morphology on cardiac resynchronization therapy outcomes in mild heart failure: results from the Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction (REVERSE) study. Circulation 2012;126(7):822-9. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.097709. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22781424.

344. Kobe J, Andresen D, Maier S, et al. Complications and 1-year benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients over 75 years of age - Insights from the German Device Registry. Int J Cardiol 2016;228:784-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.212. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27898337.

345. Heidenreich PA, Tsai V, Bao H, et al. Does Age Influence Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Use and Outcome? JACC Heart Fail 2015;3(6):497-504. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.01.012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25982109.

346. Brignole M, Botto G, Mont L, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients undergoing atrioventricular junction ablation for permanent atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial. Eur Heart J 2011;32(19):2420-9. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr162. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21606084.

347. Upadhyay GA, Choudhry NK, Auricchio A, et al. Cardiac resynchronization in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52(15):1239-46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18926327.

348. Gasparini M, Leclercq C, Lunati M, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: the CERTIFY study (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Multinational Registry). JACC Heart Fail 2013;1(6):500-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2013.06.003. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24622002.

349. Lopes C, Pereira T, Barra S. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Rev Port Cardiol 2014;33(11):717-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.repc.2014.05.008. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25457476.

350. Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J 2016;37(38):2893-962. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw210. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27567408.

351. Doshi RN, Daoud EG, Fellows C, et al. Left ventricular-based cardiac stimulation post AV nodal ablation evaluation (the PAVE study). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2005;16(11):1160-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16302897.

352. Stavrakis S, Garabelli P, Reynolds DW. Cardiac resynchronization therapy after atrioventricular junction ablation for symptomatic atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Europace 2012;14(10):1490-7. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eus193. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22696519.

353. Curtis AB, Worley SJ, Adamson PB, et al. Biventricular pacing for atrioventricular block and systolic dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2013;368(17):1585-93. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1210356. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23614585.

354. Funck RC, Blanc JJ, Mueller HH, et al. Biventricular stimulation to prevent cardiac desynchronization: rationale, design, and endpoints of the 'Biventricular Pacing for Atrioventricular Block to Prevent Cardiac Desynchronization (BioPace)' study. Europace 2006;8(8):629-35. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eul075. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16864616.

355. Blanc JJ. Biopace Trial Preliminary Results. ESC Congress 2014: Presentation. 2014 [cited: 2017-01-30]. http://clinicaltrialresults.org/Slides/TCT%202014/Blanc_Biopace.pdf.

356. Gage RM, Burns KV, Bank AJ. Echocardiographic and clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients with and without previous right ventricular pacing. Eur J Heart Fail 2014;16(11):1199-205. DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.143. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132044.

357. Kirkfeldt RE, Johansen JB, Nohr EA, et al. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations: an analysis of a complete, nationwide cohort in Denmark. Eur Heart J 2014;35(18):1186-94. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht511. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24347317.

358. Bogale N, Priori S, Gitt A, et al. The European cardiac resynchronization therapy survey: patient selection and implantation practice vary according to centre volume. Europace 2011;13(10):1445-53. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eur173. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21712274.

359. Freeman JV, Wang Y, Curtis JP, et al. Physician procedure volume and complications of cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Circulation 2012;125(1):57-64. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.046995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22095828.

360. Poole JE, Gleva MJ, Mela T, et al. Complication rates associated with pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator replacements and upgrade procedures: results from the REPLACE registry. Circulation 2010;122(16):1553-61. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.976076. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921437.

361. Jung W, Andresen D, Block M, et al. Leitlinien zur Implantation von Defibrillatoren. Clin Res Cardiol 2006;95(12):696-708. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17103126.

362. Deutsche Herzstiftung. Deutscher Herzbericht 2016. 28. Sektorenübergreifende Versorgungsanalyse zur Kardiologie und Herzchirurgie in Deutschland. Frankfurt/Main: Deutsche Herzstiftung; 2016.

363. Green AR, Boyd CM, Rickard J, et al. Attitudes of older adults with serious competing health risks toward their implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: a pilot study. BMC Geriatr 2015;15:173. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-015-0173-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700296.

364. Kuck KH, Cappato R, Siebels J, et al. Randomized comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest : the Cardiac Arrest Study Hamburg (CASH). Circulation 2000;102(7):748-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10942742.

365. Connolly SJ, Gent M, Roberts RS, et al. Canadian implantable defibrillator study (CIDS) : a randomized trial of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator against amiodarone. Circulation 2000;101(11):1297-302. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10725290.

366. Zipes DP, Wyse DG, Friedman PL. A comparison of antiarrhythmic-drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) Investigators. N Engl J Med 1997;337(22):1576-83. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199711273372202. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9411221.

367. Connolly SJ, Hallstrom AP, Cappato R, et al. Meta-analysis of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator secondary prevention trials. AVID, CASH and CIDS studies. Antiarrhythmics vs Implantable Defibrillator study. Cardiac Arrest Study Hamburg . Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study. Eur Heart J 2000;21(24):2071-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102258.

368. McAlister FA, Ezekowitz J, Dryden DM, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and implantable cardiac defibrillators in left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2007;(152):1-199. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764218.

369. Betts TR, Sadarmin PP, Tomlinson DR, et al. Absolute risk reduction in total mortality with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: analysis of primary and secondary prevention trial data to aid risk/benefit analysis. Europace 2013;15(6):813-9. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eus427. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23365069.

370. Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ, et al. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2002;346(12):877-83. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11907286.

371. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, et al. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352(3):225-37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15659722.

372. Hohnloser SH, Kuck KH, Dorian P, et al. Prophylactic use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2004;351(24):2481-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15590950.

373. Steinbeck G, Andresen D, Seidl K, et al. Defibrillator implantation early after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2009;361(15):1427-36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19812399.

374. Kober L, Thune JJ, Nielsen JC, et al. Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2016;375(13):1221-30. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1608029. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571011.

375. Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS, et al. Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1996;335(26):1933-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8960472.

376. Buxton AE, Lee KL, Fisher JD, et al. A randomized study of the prevention of sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341(25):1882-90. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199912163412503. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10601507.

377. Kadish A, Dyer A, Daubert JP, et al. Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2004;350(21):2151-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152060.

378. Chen CY, Stevenson LW, Stewart GC, et al. Real world effectiveness of primary implantable cardioverter defibrillators implanted during hospital admissions for exacerbation of heart failure or other acute co-morbidities: cohort study of older patients with heart failure. BMJ 2015;351:h3529. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26174233.

379. Green AR, Leff B, Wang Y, et al. Geriatric Conditions in Patients Undergoing Defibrillator Implantation for Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Prevalence and Impact on Mortality. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2016;9(1):23-30. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.115.002053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26715650.

380. Steinberg BA, Al-Khatib SM, Edwards R, et al. Outcomes of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use in patients with comorbidities: results from a combined analysis of 4 randomized clinical trials. JACC Heart Fail 2014;2(6):623-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.06.007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306452.

381. Raphael CE, Finegold JA, Barron AJ, et al. The effect of duration of follow-up and presence of competing risk on lifespan-gain from implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: who benefits the most? Eur Heart J 2015;36(26):1676-88. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908776.

382. Miller RJ, Howlett JG, Exner DV, et al. Baseline Functional Class and Therapeutic Efficacy of Common Heart Failure Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Can J Cardiol 2015;31(6):792-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2014.12.031. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022990.

383. Hess PL, Al-Khatib SM, Han JY, et al. Survival benefit of the primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator among older patients: does age matter? An analysis of pooled data from 5 clinical trials. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2015;8(2):179-86. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001306. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669833.

384. Merchant FM, Jones P, Wehrenberg S, et al. Incidence of defibrillator shocks after elective generator exchange following uneventful first battery life. J Am Heart Assoc 2014;3(6):e001289. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001289. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385346.

385. Yap SC, Schaer BA, Bhagwandien RE, et al. Evaluation of the need of elective implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator replacement in primary prevention patients without prior appropriate ICD therapy. Heart 2014;100(15):1188-92. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305535. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24993502.

386. Erkapic D, Sperzel J, Stiller S, et al. Long-term benefit of implantable cardioverter/defibrillator therapy after elective device replacement: results of the INcidence free SUrvival after ICD REplacement (INSURE) trial--a prospective multicentre study. Eur Heart J 2013;34(2):130-7. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs177. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22771679.

387. Alsheikh-Ali AA, Homer M, Maddukuri PV, et al. Time-dependence of appropriate implantable defibrillator therapy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2008;19(8):784-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01111.x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18284493.

388. Kini V, Soufi MK, Deo R, et al. Appropriateness of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators at the time of generator replacement: are indications still met? J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63(22):2388-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.025. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727249.

389. Institut für Qualitätssicherung und Transparenz im Gesundheitswesen (IQTIG). Implantierbare Defibrillatoren-Aggregatwechsel. Indikatoren 2015. Bundesauswertung zum Erfassungsjahr 2015. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-30]. http://www.iqtig.org/downloads/ergebnisse/qidb/2015/2016-05-25/QIDB_2015_INDIREKT_PDF/QIDB_2015_indirekte_Leistungsbereiche/QIDB_mit_Rechenregeln/09n5_QIDB2015_Rechenregeln.pdf.

390. Hu ZY, Zhang J, Xu ZT, et al. Efficiencies and Complications of Dual Chamber versus Single Chamber Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Secondary Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention: A Meta-analysis. Heart Lung Circ 2016;25(2):148-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.hlc.2015.07.008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26338316.

391. Chen BW, Liu Q, Wang X, et al. Are dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators really better than single-chamber ones? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2014;39(3):273-80. DOI: 10.1007/s10840-014-9873-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532113.

392. Goncalves J, Pereira T. Inappropriate shocks in patients with ICDs: single chamber versus dual chamber. Arq Bras Cardiol 2013;101(2):141-8. DOI: 10.5935/abc.20130125. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23821405.

393. Schwab JO, Bänsch D, Israel C, et al. Stellungnahme zum Einsatz des tragbaren Kardioverter/Defibrillators. Kardiologe 2015;9(2):165-70. DOI: 10.1007/s12181-015-0651-y. http://leitlinien.dgk.org/2015/stellungnahme-zum-einsatz-des-tragbaren-kardioverterdefibrillators/.

394. Ettinger S, Stanak M, Huic M, et al. Tragbare Kardioverter Defibrillator Therapie zur Primär- und Sekundärprävention von plötzlichem Herzstillstand Deutsche Zusammenfassung des EUnetHTA-Berichts. 2016 (Decision Support Document; 103) [cited: 2017-07-17]. http://eprints.hta.lbg.ac.at/1109/1/DSD_103.pdf.

395. Bardy GH, Smith WM, Hood MA, et al. An entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. N Engl J Med 2010;363(1):36-44. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0909545. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20463331.

396. Aziz S, Leon AR, El-Chami MF. The subcutaneous defibrillator: a review of the literature. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63(15):1473-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.01.018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24530663.

397. Olde Nordkamp LR, Knops RE, Bardy GH, et al. Rationale and design of the PRAETORIAN trial: a Prospective, RAndomizEd comparison of subcuTaneOus and tRansvenous ImplANtable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy. Am Heart J 2012;163(5):753-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.02.012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22607851.

398. Burke MC, Gold MR, Knight BP, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the Totally Subcutaneous Implantable Defibrillator: 2-Year Results From a Pooled Analysis of the IDE Study and EFFORTLESS Registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;65(16):1605-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.02.047. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908064.

399. Boveda S, Lenarczyk R, Haugaa K, et al. Implantation of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey. Europace 2016;18(9):1434-9. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euw258. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27582309.

400. Ascoeta MS, Marijon E, Defaye P, et al. Impact of early complications on outcomes in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention. Heart Rhythm 2016;13(5):1045-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.12.046. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749313.

401. van der Heijden AC, Borleffs CJ, Buiten MS, et al. The clinical course of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Extended experience on clinical outcome, device replacements, and device-related complications. Heart Rhythm 2015;12(6):1169-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.02.035. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749138.

402. Deutsche Herzstiftung. Deutscher Herzbericht 2015. 27. Sektorenübergreifende Versorgungsanalyse zur Kardiologie und Herzchirurgie in Deutschland. Frankfurt/Main: Deutsche Herzstiftung; 2015.

403. Ho C, Li H, Noorani H, et al. Implantable cardiac defibrillators for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in high risk patients: a meta-analysis of clinical efficacy, and a review of cost-effectiveness and psychosocial issues. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH); 2007 (Technology Report; 81). http://www.cadth.ca/media/pdf/332_ICD_tr_e.pdf.

404. Ladwig KH, Lederbogen F, Albus C, et al. Positionspapier zur Bedeutung psychosozialer Faktoren in der Kardiologie. Update 2013. Kardiologe 2013;7(1):7-27. DOI: 10.1007/s12181-012-0478-8.

405. Barra S, Providencia R, Tang A, et al. Importance of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Back-Up in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Heart Assoc 2015;4(11). DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002539. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26546574.

406. Lozano I, Bocchiardo M, Achtelik M, et al. Impact of biventricular pacing on mortality in a randomized crossover study of patients with heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2000;23(11 Pt 2):1711-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11139906.

407. Schuchert A, Muto C, Maounis T, et al. Lead complications, device infections, and clinical outcomes in the first year after implantation of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker. Europace 2013;15(1):71-6. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eus247. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927665.

408. Munir MB, Althouse AD, Rijal S, et al. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Older Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Recipients Using a Pacemaker versus a Defibrillator. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2016;27(6):730-4. DOI: 10.1111/jce.12951. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856440.

409. Dickstein K, Bogale N, Priori S, et al. The European cardiac resynchronization therapy survey. Eur Heart J 2009;30(20):2450-60. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp359. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723694.

410. Lam SK, Owen A. Combined resynchronisation and implantable defibrillator therapy in left ventricular dysfunction: Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2007;335(7626):925. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17932160.

411. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Chronische KHK - Langfassung, 4. Auflage. Version 1. 2016 [cited: 2017-06-26]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000267. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000267.

412. Windecker S, Kolh P, Alfonso F, et al. 2014 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization: The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)Developed with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI). Eur Heart J 2014;35(37):2541-619. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu278. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25173339.

413. Velazquez EJ, Lee KL, Deja MA, et al. Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2011;364(17):1607-16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21463150.

414. Velazquez EJ, Lee KL, Jones RH, et al. Coronary-Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2016;374(16):1511-20. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1602001. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27040723.

415. Wrobel K, Stevens SR, Jones RH, et al. Influence of Baseline Characteristics, Operative Conduct, and Postoperative Course on 30-Day Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Among Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Results From the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial. Circulation 2015;132(8):720-30. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.014932. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304663.

416. Michler RE, Smith PK, Parides MK, et al. Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. N Engl J Med 2016;374(20):1932-41. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1602003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27040451.

417. Goldstein D, Moskowitz AJ, Gelijns AC, et al. Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. N Engl J Med 2016;374(4):344-53. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1512913. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550689.

418. Anantha Narayanan M., Aggarwal S, Reddy YN, et al. Surgical Repair of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation-A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017; [Epub ahead of print]. DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1598012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28109210.

419. Mihos CG, Larrauri-Reyes M, Santana O. A Meta-Analysis of Ring Annuloplasty Versus Combined Ring Annuloplasty and Subvalvular Repair for Moderate-to-Severe Functional Mitral Regurgitation. J Card Surg 2016;31(1):31-7. DOI: 10.1111/jocs.12662. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626776.

420. Nappi F, Lusini M, Spadaccio C, et al. Papillary Muscle Approximation Versus Restrictive Annuloplasty Alone for Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;67(20):2334-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.478. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199056.

421. Takagi H, Umemoto T. Similar Survival After Repair vs Replacement for Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016;28(4):748-56. DOI: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2016.09.001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28417860.

422. Acker MA, Parides MK, Perrault LP, et al. Mitral-valve repair versus replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. N Engl J Med 2014;370(1):23-32. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1312808. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245543.

423. Feldman T, Kar S, Elmariah S, et al. Randomized Comparison of Percutaneous Repair and Surgery for Mitral Regurgitation: 5-Year Results of EVEREST II. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;66(25):2844-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26718672.

424. De Bonis M, Lapenna E, Buzzatti N, et al. Optimal results immediately after MitraClip therapy or surgical edge-to-edge repair for functional mitral regurgitation: are they really stable at 4 years? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2016;50(3):488-94. DOI: 10.1093/ejcts/ezw093. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27009105.

425. Institut für Qualitätssicherung und Transparenz im Gesundheitswesen (IQTIG). Herzunterstützungssysteme/Kunstherzen. Qualitätsindikatoren. Bundesauswertung zum Erfassungsjahr 2015. 2016 [cited: 2017-02-14]. http://iqtig.org/downloads/ergebnisse/qidb/2015/2016-05-25/QIDB_2015_DIREKT_PDF/QIDB_2015_direkte_Leistungsbereiche/BuAw_2015_DIREKT/bu_Gesamt_HTX-MKU_2015.pdf.

426. Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Long-term mechanical left ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;345(20):1435-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11794191.

427. Slaughter MS, Rogers JG, Milano CA, et al. Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device. N Engl J Med 2009;361(23):2241-51. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0909938. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19920051.

428. Gillespie F, Abraha I, Amicosante AM, et al. Implantable LVAD (Left Ventricular Assist Device) in addition to guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT) in end stage heart failure. HTA Report. 2015 [cited: 2017-02-08]. http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_1202_listaFile_itemName_10_file.pdf.

429. Neyt M, Leroy R, Devos C, et al. Left ventricular assist devices in the treatment of end-stage heart failure. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-10]. http://www.kce.fgov.be/sites/default/files/page_documents/KCE_264_LVAD_report.pdf.

430. Health Quality Ontario (HQO). Left ventricular assist devices for destination therapy: a health technology assessment. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-10]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4761917/pdf/ohtas-16-1.pdf.

431. Sutcliffe P, Connock M, Pulikottil-Jacob R, et al. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of second- and third-generation left ventricular assist devices as either bridge to transplant or alternative to transplant for adults eligible for heart transplantation: systematic review and cost-effectiveness model. Health Technol Assess 2013;17(53):1-vi. DOI: 10.3310/hta17530. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24280231.

432. Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (Intermacs). Quarterly Statistical Report. 2016 Q3. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-30]. http://www.uab.edu/medicine/intermacs/images/Federal_Quarterly_Report/Federal_Partners_Report_2016_Q3.pdf.

433. Kirklin JK, Cantor R, Mohacsi P, et al. First Annual IMACS Report: A global International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support. J Heart Lung Transplant 2016;35(4):407-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.healun.2016.01.002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26922275.

434. Lund LH, Edwards LB, Kucheryavaya AY, et al. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Thirty-second Official Adult Heart Transplantation Report--2015; Focus Theme: Early Graft Failure. J Heart Lung Transplant 2015;34(10):1244-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.healun.2015.08.003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454738.

435. Mehra MR, Naka Y, Uriel N, et al. A Fully Magnetically Levitated Circulatory Pump for Advanced Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2017;376(5):440-50. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1610426. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959709.

436. International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). ISHLT Transplant Registry Quarterly Reports for Heart in Europe. Survival Rates for Transplants performed between October 1, 2011 and September 30, 2015. 2016 [cited: 2017-01-30]. http://www.ishlt.org/registries/quarterlyDataReportResults.asp?organ=HR&rptType=recip_p_surv&continent=3.

437. Ständige Impfkommission am Robert Koch Institut (STIKO). Mitteilung der Ständigen Impfkommission am Robert Koch-Institut: Empfehlungen der Ständigen Impfkommission (STIKO) am Robert Koch-Institut. Epidemiologisches Bulletin / Nr. 30. 2005 [cited: 2017-05-10]. http://www.rki.de/DE/Content/Infekt/EpidBull/Archiv/2005/Ausgabenlinks/30_05.pdf?__blob=publicationFile.

438. Ballout A, Goffin E, Yombi JC, et al. Vaccinations for adult solid organ transplant recipient: current recommendations. Transplant Proc 2005;37(6):2826-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16182821.

439. Westaby S. Non-transplant surgery for heart failure. Heart 2000;83(5):603-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10768919.

440. Dor V, Sabatier M, Di Donato M, et al. Efficacy of endoventricular patch plasty in large postinfarction akinetic scar and severe left ventricular dysfunction: comparison with a series of large dyskinetic scars. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998;116(1):50-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9671897.

441. Menicanti L, Di Donato M. Left Ventricular Restoration: How Important is the Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure Trial? Heart Fail Clin 2007;3(2):237-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17643924.

442. Buckberg GD. Defining the relationship between akinesia and dyskinesia and the cause of left ventricular failure after anterior infarction and reversal of remodeling to restoration. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998;116(1):47-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9671896.

443. Westaby S. Surgery for heart failure: now something for everyone? Heart Fail Clin 2007;3(2):139-57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17643919.

444. Jones RH, Velazquez EJ, Michler RE, et al. Coronary bypass surgery with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction. N Engl J Med 2009;360(17):1705-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19329820.

445. Michler RE, Rouleau JL, Al-Khalidi HR, et al. Insights from the STICH trial: change in left ventricular size after coronary artery bypass grafting with and without surgical ventricular reconstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;146(5):1139-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.09.007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23111018.

446. Kuck KH, Bordachar P, Borggrefe M, et al. New devices in heart failure: an European Heart Rhythm Association report: developed by the European Heart Rhythm Association; endorsed by the Heart Failure Association. Europace 2014;16(1):109-28. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eut311. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24265466.

447. Singh JP, Kandala J, Camm AJ. Non-pharmacological modulation of the autonomic tone to treat heart failure. Eur Heart J 2014;35(2):77-85. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht436. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24174128.

448. Abraham WT, Zile MR, Weaver FA, et al. Baroreflex Activation Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure With a Reduced Ejection Fraction. JACC Heart Fail 2015;3(6):487-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.02.006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25982108.

449. Kadish A, Nademanee K, Volosin K, et al. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of cardiac contractility modulation in advanced heart failure. Am Heart J 2011;161(2):329-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.10.025. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315216.

450. Borggrefe MM, Lawo T, Butter C, et al. Randomized, double blind study of non-excitatory, cardiac contractility modulation electrical impulses for symptomatic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2008;29(8):1019-28. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn020. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270213.

451. Zannad F, De Ferrari GM, Tuinenburg AE, et al. Chronic vagal stimulation for the treatment of low ejection fraction heart failure: results of the NEural Cardiac TherApy foR Heart Failure (NECTAR-HF) randomized controlled trial. Eur Heart J 2015;36(7):425-33. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu345. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25176942.

452. Fromme EK, Stewart TL, Jeppesen M, et al. Adverse experiences with implantable defibrillators in Oregon hospices. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2011;28(5):304-9. DOI: 10.1177/1049909110390505. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21112878.

453. Westerdahl AK, Sutton R, Frykman V. Defibrillator patients should not be denied a peaceful death. Int J Cardiol 2015;182:440-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.01.012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25597981.

454. Willemsen D, Cordes C, Bjarnason-Wehrens B, et al. Rehabilitationsstandards für die Anschlussheilbehandlung und allgemeine Rehabilitation von Patienten mit einem Herzunterstützungssystem (VAD – ventricular assist device). Clin Res Cardiol Suppl 2016;11 Suppl 1:2-49. DOI: 10.1007/s11789-015-0077-x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26882905.

455. Brush S, Budge D, Alharethi R, et al. End-of-life decision making and implementation in recipients of a destination left ventricular assist device. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29(12):1337-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.healun.2010.07.001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20817564.

456. Mueller PS, Swetz KM, Freeman MR, et al. Ethical analysis of withdrawing ventricular assist device support. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(9):791-7. DOI: 10.4065/mcp.2010.0113. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20584919.

457. Gafford EF, Luckhardt AJ, Swetz KM. Deactivation of a left ventricular assist device at the end of life #269. J Palliat Med 2013;16(8):980-2. DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2013.9490. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23767953.

458. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), Resuscitation Council, British Cardiovascular Society, et al. Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death. 2015 [cited: 2017-02-24]. http://www.bhrs.com/files/files/Guidelines/CIEDs_Guidance.pdf.

459. Bundesgerichtshof (BGH). BGH, Urteil vom 25. Juni 2010 - 2 StR 454/09 - LG Fulda. 2010 [cited: 2017-02-24]. http://juris.bundesgerichtshof.de/cgi-bin/rechtsprechung/document.py?Gericht=bgh&Art=en&sid=59e71abacc0d791b04c31d71800b71af&nr=52999&pos=1&anz=2&Blank=1.pdf.

460. Carlsson J, Paul NW, Dann M, et al. The deactivation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: medical, ethical, practical, and legal considerations. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2012;109(33-34):535-41. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0535. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152737.

461. Waltenberger J, Schöne-Seifert B, Friedrich R. Verantwortlicher Umgang mit ICDs Stellungnahme der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie und ihrer Schwester-Gesellschaften (Projektgruppe Ethik in der Kardiologie). 2017 [cited: 2017-07-14]. DOI: 10.1007/s12181-017-0185-6.

462. Padeletti L, Arnar DO, Boncinelli L, et al. EHRA Expert Consensus Statement on the management of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices in patients nearing end of life or requesting withdrawal of therapy. Europace 2010;12(10):1480-9. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euq275. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20675674.

463. American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Geriatrics Society (AGS), American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM), et al. HRS Expert Consensus Statement on the Management of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs) in patients nearing end of life or requesting withdrawal of therapy. Heart Rhythm 2010;7(7):1008-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.04.033. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20471915.

464. Whellan DJ, Goodlin SJ, Dickinson MG, et al. End-of-life care in patients with heart failure. J Card Fail 2014;20(2):121-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.12.003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556532.

465. Ladwig KH, Lederbogen F, Voller H, et al. Positionspapier zur Bedeutung von psychosozialen Faktoren in der Kardiologie. Kardiologe 2008;2(4):274-87.

466. Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2007;28(19):2375-414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17726041.

467. Schweikert B, Hahmann H, Leidl R. Validation of the EuroQol questionnaire in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart 2006;92(1):62-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15797936.

468. Bullinger M, Kirchberger I. SF-36. Fragebogen zum Gesundheitszustand. Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe; 1998.

469. Siegrist J, Broer M, Junge A. Profil der Lebensqualität chronisch Kranker - Manual. Beltz Test. Göttingen: Beltz; 1996.

470. Höfer S, Schmid JP, Frick M, et al. Psychometric properties of the MacNew heart disease health-related quality of life instrument in patients with heart failure. J Eval Clin Pract 2008;14(4):500-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18462292.

471. Faller H, Steinbuchel T, Schowalter M, et al. Der Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) - ein neues krankheitsspezifisches Messinstrument zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität bei chronischer Herzinsuffizienz - Psychometrische Prüfung der deutschen Version. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2005;55(3-4):200-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800814.

472. Rector TS, Cohn JN. Assessment of patient outcome with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire: reliability and validity during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pimobendan. Pimobendan Multicenter Research Group. Am Heart J 1992;124(4):1017-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1529875.

473. Cockroft DW, Gault MH. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976;16:31-41.

474. Schmechel H, Fünfstück R, Folger U, et al. Kritische Betrachtung der rechnerischen Bestimmung der glomerulären Filtrationsrate nach Cockcroft und Gault - Versuch einer Korrektur. Nieren Hochdruckkrankh 2005;34(10):433-44.

475. Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, et al. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(6):461-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075613.

476. Jourdain P, Jondeau G, Funck F, et al. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide-guided therapy to improve outcome in heart failure: the STARS-BNP Multicenter Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(16):1733-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17448376.

477. Troughton RW, Frampton CM, Yandle TG, et al. Treatment of heart failure guided by plasma aminoterminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) concentrations. Lancet 2000;355(9210):1126-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10791374.

478. Felker GM, Hasselblad V, Hernandez AF, et al. Biomarker-guided therapy in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am Heart J 2009;158(3):422-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699866.

479. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Health Care Guideline: Heart Failure in Adults. 9th ed. Bloomington: ICSI; 2006.

480. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Cardiac rehabilitation. Edinburgh: SIGN; 2002 (SIGN Publications; 57). http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/published/numlist.html.

481. Thomas RJ, King M, Lui K, et al. AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 performance measures on cardiac rehabilitation for referral to and delivery of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention services endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Physical Therapy Association, Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, Inter-American Heart Foundation, National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50(14):1400-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17903645.

482. Austin J, Williams R, Ross L, et al. Randomised controlled trial of cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients with heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2005;7(3):411-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15718182.

483. Reibis R, Dovifat C, Dissmann R, et al. Implementation of evidence-based therapy in patients with systolic heart failure from 1998-2000. Clin Res Cardiol 2006;95(3):154-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16598528.

484. Holubarsch CJF, Brantner A, Schandelmeyer A, et al. Influence of a structured, multimodal, stationary rehabilitation intervention on NT-proBNP values in patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II - III - a multicenter six-months-study. Eur Heart J 2007;28 Suppl 412.

485. Radzewitz A, Miche E, Herrmann G, et al. Exercise and muscle strength training and their effect on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2002;4(5):627-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12413507.

486. Rauch B, Schneider S, Gitt A, et al. Short-term cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction-results from the acute coronary syndrom registry (ACOS). Eur Heart J 2005;26 Abstract Suppl, P3033.

487. Schwaab B, Waldmann A, Katalinic A, et al. One year follow-up after acute coronary artery disease - immediate hospital discharge versus cardiac rehabilitation. Circulation 2007;116 Suppl 16:II 802.

488. LaRosa JC. Poor compliance: the hidden risk factor. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000;2(1):1-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11122718.

489. Miche E, Herrmann G, Wirtz U, et al. Effects of education, self-care instruction and physical exercise on patients with chronic heart failure. Z Kardiol 2003;92(12):985-93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14663608.

490. Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, et al. Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001;104(14):1694-740. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11581152.

491. Scherer M, Stanske B, Wetzel D, et al. Die krankenhausspezifische Lebensqualität von hausärztlichen Patienten mit Herzinsuffizienz. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 2007;101(3):185-90. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17608037.

492. Scherer M, Stanske B, Wetzel D, et al. Psychische Kosymptomatik vonhausärztlichen Patientenmit Herzinsuffizienz. Herz 2006;31(4):347-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16810475.

493. Herrmann-Lingen C. Herzinsuffizienz und Herztransplantation. In: Herrmann-Lingen C, Albus C, Titscher G, editors. Psychokardiologie - Ein Praxisleitfaden für Ärzte und Psychologen. Köln: Dt. Ärzte-Verl.; 2008. p. 160-76.

494. Follath F. Beta-blockade today: the gap between evidence and practice. Eur Heart J Suppl 2006;(8):C28-C34.

495. Scherer M, Himmel W, Stanske B, et al. Psychological distress in primary care patients with heart failure: A longitudinal study. Br J Gen Pract 2007.

496. Joynt KE, Whellan DJ, O'Connor CM. Why is depression bad for the failing heart? A review of the mechanistic relationship between depression and heart failure. J Card Fail 2004;10(3):258-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15190537.

497. Herrmann-Lingen C, Pieske B. Natriuretic peptides or psychometric tests? Prognostic markers in congestive heart failure. Heart 2008;94(5):545-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18411346.

498. Beck AT, Steer RA, Carbin MG. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev 1988;8(1):77-100.

499. Herrmann C, Buss U, Snaith RP. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Deutsche Version (HADS-D). Manual. Bern: Huber; 1995.

500. Löwe B, Spitzer RL, Zipfel S, et al. PHQ-D - Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten. Karlsruhe: Pfizer; 2001.

501. Löwe B, Kroenke K, Herzog W, et al. Measuring depression outcome with a brief self-report instrument: sensitivity to change of the Patient Health Questionnaire. J Affect Disord 2003.

502. Löwe B, Spitzer RL, Gräfe K, et al. Comparative validity of three screening questionnaires for DSM-IV depressive disorders and physicians' diagnoses. J Affect Disord 2004;78(2):131-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14706723.

503. Whooley MA, Simon GE. Managing depression in medical outpatients. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1942-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11136266.

504. Albus C, Jordan J, Herrmann-Lingen C. Screening for psychosocial risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease-recommendations for clinical practice. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004;11(1):75-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15167210.

505. Lichtman JH, Bigger JT, Jr., Blumenthal JA, et al. Depression and coronary heart disease: recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association. Circulation 2008;118(17):1768-75. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18824640.

506. Yu DS, Lee DT, Woo J, et al. Non-pharmacological interventions in older people with heart failure: effects of exercise training and relaxation therapy. Gerontology 2007;53(2):74-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17057393.

507. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Anxiety. London: NICE; 2004 (Clinical Guideline; 22).

508. Lane DA, Chong AY, Lip GY. Psychological interventions for depression in heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(1):CD003329. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15674906.

509. Gottlieb SS, Kop WJ, Thomas SA, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of controlled-release paroxetine on depression and quality of life in chronic heart failure. Am Heart J 2007;153(5):868-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17452166.

510. Sherwood A, Blumenthal JA, Trivedi R, et al. Relationship of depression to death or hospitalization in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2007;167(4):367-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17325298.

511. DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(14):2101-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10904452.

512. Zentgraf C. Zum Stand der Versorgungssituation der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Eine prospektive Analyse an 1054 konsekutiv rekrutierten Patienten am Interdisziplinären Herzinsuffizienzregister Würzburg. Dissertation zu Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Medizinischen Fakultät der Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität zu Würzburg. Würzburg: Med. Fakultät der Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität; 2007.

513. Braunstein JB, Anderson GF, Gerstenblith G, et al. Noncardiac comorbidity increases preventable hospitalizations and mortality among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42(7):1226-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14522486.

514. Hobbs FD, Kenkre JE, Roalfe AK, et al. Impact of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction on quality of life: a cross-sectional study comparing common chronic cardiac and medical disorders and a representative adult population. Eur Heart J 2002;23(23):1867-76. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12445536.

515. Jong P, Vowinckel E, Liu PP, et al. Prognosis and determinants of survival in patients newly hospitalized for heart failure: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162(15):1689-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12153371.

516. Störk S, Hense HW, Zentgraf C, et al. Pharmacotherapy according to treatment guidelines is associated with lower mortality in a community-based sample of patients with chronic heart failure. A prospective cohort study. Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10(12):1236-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18996739.

517. Ahmed A, Rich MW, Love TE, et al. Digoxin and reduction in mortality and hospitalization in heart failure: a comprehensive post hoc analysis of the DIG trial. Eur Heart J 2006;27(2):178-86. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16339157.

518. Krum H, Gilbert RE. Demographics and concomitant disorders in heart failure. Lancet 2003;362(9378):147-58. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12867118.

519. MERIT-HF Study Group. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet 1999;353(9169):2001-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10376614.

520. Haas SJ, Vos T, Gilbert RE, et al. Are beta-blockers as efficacious in patients with diabetes mellitus as in patients without diabetes mellitus who have chronic heart failure? A meta-analysis of large-scale clinical trials. Am Heart J 2003;146(5):848-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14597934.

521. Ryden L, Armstrong PW, Cleland JG, et al. Efficacy and safety of high-dose lisinopril in chronic heart failure patients at high cardiovascular risk, including those with diabetes mellitus. Results from the ATLAS trial. Eur Heart J 2000;21(23):1967-78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11071803.

522. Mancia G, de Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al. 2007 ESH-ESC Practice Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: ESH-ESC Task Force on the Management of Arterial Hypertension. J Hypertens 2007;25(9):1751-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17762635.

523. Cohn JN, Ziesche S, Smith R, et al. Effect of the calcium antagonist felodipine as supplementary vasodilator therapy in patients with chronic heart failure treated with enalapril: V-HeFT III. Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT) Study Group. Circulation 1997;96(3):856-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9264493.

524. Elkayam U, Amin J, Mehra A, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study to compare the efficacy and safety of chronic nifedipine therapy with that of isosorbide dinitrate and their combination in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. Circulation 1990;82(6):1954-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2242521.

525. Levine TB, Bernink PJ, Caspi A, et al. Effect of mibefradil, a T-type calcium channel blocker, on morbidity and mortality in moderate to severe congestive heart failure: the MACH-1 study. Mortality Assessment in Congestive Heart Failure Trial. Circulation 2000;101(7):758-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10683349.

526. Littler WA, Sheridan DJ. Placebo controlled trial of felodipine in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. UK Study Group. Br Heart J 1995;73(5):428-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7786657.

527. Mullins ME, Horowitz BZ, Linden DH, et al. Life-threatening interaction of mibefradil and beta-blockers with dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. JAMA 1998;280(2):157-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9669789.

528. Tan LB, Murray RG, Littler WA. Felodipine in patients with chronic heart failure: discrepant haemodynamic and clinical effects. Br Heart J 1987;58(2):122-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3304372.

529. Packer M, O'Connor CM, Ghali JK, et al. Effect of amlodipine on morbidity and mortality in severe chronic heart failure. Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;335(15):1107-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8813041.

530. Tang YD, Katz SD. Anemia in chronic heart failure: prevalence, etiology, clinical correlates, and treatment options. Circulation 2006;113(20):2454-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16717164.

531. Ghali JK, Anand IS, Abraham WT, et al. Randomized double-blind trial of darbepoetin alfa in patients with symptomatic heart failure and anemia. Circulation 2008;117(4):526-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195176.

532. Schauder P, Ollenschläger G. Ernährungsmedizin. Prävention und Therapie. 3rd ed. Edingburgh: Elsevier; 2006.

533. Springer J, Filippatos G, Akashi YJ, et al. Prognosis and therapy approaches of cardiac cachexia. Curr Opin Cardiol 2006;21(3):229-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16601462.

534. Schlesinger N, Schumacher R, Catton M, et al. Colchicine for acute gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(4):CD006190. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054279.

535. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, et al. Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(4):1101-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10508793.

536. Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Liming JD, et al. Sleep apnea in 81 ambulatory male patients with stable heart failure. Types and their prevalences, consequences, and presentations. Circulation 1998;97(21):2154-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9626176.

537. Badr S. Central sleep apnea in patients with congestive heart failure. Heart Fail Rev 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758947.

538. Schulz R, Blau A, Borgel J, et al. Sleep apnoea in heart failure. Eur Respir J 2007;29(6):1201-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17360729.

539. Oldenburg O, Lamp B, Faber L, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a contemporary study of prevalence in and characteristics of 700 patients. Eur J Heart Fail 2007;9(3):251-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17027333.

540. Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/american College Of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council On Cardiovascular Nursing. In collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (National Institutes of Health). Circulation 2008;118(10):1080-111. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725495.

541. Floras JS. Should sleep apnoea be a specific target of therapy in heart failure? Heart 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19029172.

542. Peker Y, Hedner J, Norum J, et al. Increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men with obstructive sleep apnea: a 7-year follow-up. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166(2):159-65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12119227.

543. Mansfield DR, Gollogly NC, Kaye DM, et al. Controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea and heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169(3):361-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14597482.

544. Kaneko Y, Floras JS, Usui K, et al. Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med 2003;348(13):1233-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12660387.

545. Amabile CM, Spencer AP. Keeping your patient with heart failure safe: a review of potentially dangerous medications. Arch Intern Med 2004;164(7):709-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15078640.

546. Heiat A, Gross CP, Krumholz HM. Representation of the elderly, women, and minorities in heart failure clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 2002;162(15):1682-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12153370.

547. Hutcheon SD, Gillespie ND, Crombie IK, et al. Perindopril improves six minute walking distance in older patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Heart 2002;88(4):373-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12231595.

548. Gambassi G, Lapane KL, Sgadari A, et al. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and digoxin on health outcomes of very old patients with heart failure. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric drug use via Epidemiology. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(1):53-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10632305.

549. Zuccala G, Onder G, Marzetti E, et al. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and variations in cognitive performance among patients with heart failure. Eur Heart J 2005;26(3):226-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15618043.

550. Miura T, Kojima R, Sugiura Y, et al. Effect of aging on the incidence of digoxin toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34(4):427-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10772425.

551. Ekman I, Fagerberg B, Skoog I. The clinical implications of cognitive impairment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2001;16(1):47-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11587240.

552. Zuccala G, Pedone C, Cesari M, et al. The effects of cognitive impairment on mortality among hospitalized patients with heart failure. Am J Med 2003;115(2):97-103. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12893394.

553. Vogels RL, Scheltens P, Schroeder-Tanka JM, et al. Cognitive impairment in heart failure: a systematic review of the literature. Eur J Heart Fail 2007;9(5):440-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174152.

554. Buser K, Amelung V, Brandes I, et al. Palliativversorgung in Niedersachsen. Bestandsaufnahme und Empfehlungen zur Weiterentwicklung. Gutachten im Auftrag des Niedersächsischen Ministeriums für Soziales, Frauen, Familie und Gesundheit, der Verbände der gesetzlichen Krankenkassen in Niedersachsen sowie der Kassenärztlichen Vereinigung Niedersachsen. Endversion vom Oktober 2004. 2004 [cited: 2012-03-12]. http://www.ms.niedersachsen.de/download/9574/Gutachten_Palliativversorgung_br_in_Niedersachsen_-_Bestandsaufnahme_br_und_Empfehlungen.pdf.

555. Nordgren L, Sörensen S. Symptoms experienced in the last six months of life in patients with end-stage heart failure. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2003;2(3):213-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14622629.

556. Levy D, Kenchaiah S, Larson MG, et al. Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;347(18):1397-402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12409541.

557. Kannel WB, Plehn JF, Cupples LA. Cardiac failure and sudden death in the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1988;115(4):869-75. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3354416.

558. Narang R, Cleland JG, Erhardt L, et al. Mode of death in chronic heart failure. A request and proposition for more accurate classification. Eur Heart J 1996;17(9):1390-403. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8880025.

559. Krumholz HM, Phillips RS, Hamel MB, et al. Resuscitation preferences among patients with severe congestive heart failure: results from the SUPPORT project. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. Circulation 1998;98(7):648-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9715857.

560. Levenson JW, McCarthy EP, Lynn J, et al. The last six months of life for patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48(5 Suppl):S101-S109. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10809463.

561. Lorenz KA, Lynn J, Dy SM, et al. Evidence for improving palliative care at the end of life: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2008;148(2):147-59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195339.

562. Auerbach AD, Hamel MB, Davis RB, et al. Resource use and survival of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure: differences in care by specialty of the attending physician. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(3):191-200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10651599.

563. Baker DW, Hayes RP, Massie BM, et al. Variations in family physicians' and cardiologists' care for patients with heart failure. Am Heart J 1999;138(5 Pt 1):826-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10539812.

564. Chin MH, Friedmann PD, Cassel CK, et al. Differences in generalist and specialist physicians' knowledge and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for congestive heart failure. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12(9):523-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9294785.

565. Edep ME, Shah NB, Tateo IM, et al. Differences between primary care physicians and cardiologists in management of congestive heart failure: relation to practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(2):518-26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9247527.

566. Philbin EF, Weil HF, Erb TA, et al. Cardiology or primary care for heart failure in the community setting: process of care and clinical outcomes. Chest 1999;116(2):346-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10453861.

567. Reis SE, Holubkov R, Edmundowicz D, et al. Treatment of patients admitted to the hospital with congestive heart failure: specialty-related disparities in practice patterns and outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(3):733-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9283533.

568. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Asthma - Langfassung, 2. Auflage. Version 5. 2009 [cited: 2015-06-22]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000163. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000163.

569. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie COPD - Langfassung, 1. Auflage. Version 1.9. 2006 [cited: 2015-06-22]. http://www.leitlinien.de/mdb/downloads/nvl/copd/copd-vers1.9-lang.pdf.

570. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Therapie des Typ-2-Diabetes - Langfassung, 1. Auflage. Version 4. 2014 [cited: 2017-01-12]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000213. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000213.

571. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN), Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), et al. S3-Leitlinie/Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Unipolare Depression - Langfassung, 2. Auflage. Version 5. 2015 [cited: 2017-06-26]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000364. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000364.

572. Daamen MA, Hamers JP, Gorgels AP, et al. Heart failure in nursing home residents; a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics. BMC Geriatr 2015;15:167. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-015-0166-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675117.

573. Hancock HC, Close H, Mason JM, et al. High prevalence of undetected heart failure in long-term care residents: findings from the Heart Failure in Care Homes (HFinCH) study. Eur J Heart Fail 2013;15(2):158-65. DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfs165. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112002.

574. Barents M, van der Horst IC, Voors AA, et al. Prevalence and misdiagnosis of chronic heart failure in nursing home residents: the role of B-type natriuretic peptides. Neth Heart J 2008;16(4):123-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18427636.

575. Allen LA, Hernandez AF, Peterson ED, et al. Discharge to a skilled nursing facility and subsequent clinical outcomes among older patients hospitalized for heart failure. Circ Heart Fail 2011;4(3):293-300. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.959171. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447803.

576. Boxer RS, Dolansky MA, Frantz MA, et al. The Bridge Project: improving heart failure care in skilled nursing facilities. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012;13(1):83-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2011.01.005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21450244.

577. Chen J, Ross JS, Carlson MD, et al. Skilled nursing facility referral and hospital readmission rates after heart failure or myocardial infarction. Am J Med 2012;125(1):100-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.06.011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22195535.

578. Quality of Care and Outcomes Research (QCOR), Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA), Goodlin S, et al. Heart failure management in skilled nursing facilities: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circ Heart Fail 2015;8(3):655-87. DOI: 10.1161/HHF.0000000000000005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25855686.

579. Riley JP, Astin F, Crespo-Leiro MG, et al. Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology heart failure nurse curriculum. Eur J Heart Fail 2016;18(7):736-43. DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.568. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27220672.

580. Mattila M, Boehm L, Burke S, et al. Nonprescription medication use in patients with heart failure: assessment methods, utilization patterns, and discrepancies with medical records. J Card Fail 2013;19(12):811-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.10.009. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24184371.

581. Stewart AL, Lynch KJ. Identifying discrepancies in electronic medical records through pharmacist medication reconciliation. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2012;52(1):59-66. DOI: 10.1331/JAPhA.2012.10123. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22257617.

582. Lee VW, Choi LM, Wong WJ, et al. Pharmacist intervention in the prevention of heart failure for high-risk elderly patients in the community. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2015;15:178. DOI: 10.1186/s12872-015-0173-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26702612.

583. Tsuyuki RT, Al Hamarneh YN, Jones CA, et al. The Effectiveness of Pharmacist Interventions on Cardiovascular Risk: The Multicenter Randomized Controlled RxEACH Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;67(24):2846-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.528. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058907.

584. Schulz M, Krueger K, Schuessel K, et al. Medication adherence and persistence according to different antihypertensive drug classes: A retrospective cohort study of 255,500 patients. Int J Cardiol 2016;220:668-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.06.263. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27393848.

585. Kashour TS, Joury A, Alotaibi AM, et al. Quality of assessment and counselling offered by community pharmacists and medication sale without prescription to patients presenting with acute cardiac symptoms: a simulated client study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016;72(3):321-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00228-015-1981-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592495.

586. Dempsey JT, Matta LS, Carter DM, et al. Assessment of Drug Therapy-Related Issues in an Outpatient Heart Failure Population and the Potential Impact of Pharmacist-Driven Intervention. J Pharm Pract 2016;30(3):318-23. DOI: 10.1177/0897190016641491. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080398.

587. Roblek T, Deticek A, Leskovar B, et al. Clinical-pharmacist intervention reduces clinically relevant drug-drug interactions in patients with heart failure: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Int J Cardiol 2016;203:647-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.10.206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580349.

588. Gastelurrutia P, Benrimoj SI, Espejo J, et al. Negative clinical outcomes associated with drug-related problems in heart failure (HF) outpatients: impact of a pharmacist in a multidisciplinary HF clinic. J Card Fail 2011;17(3):217-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.10.009. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21362530.

589. Lowrie R, Johansson L, Forsyth P, et al. Experiences of a community pharmacy service to support adherence and self-management in chronic heart failure. Int J Clin Pharm 2014;36(1):154-62. DOI: 10.1007/s11096-013-9889-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293306.

590. Murray MD, Young J, Hoke S, et al. Pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence in heart failure: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007;146(10):714-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17502632.

591. Koshman SL, Charrois TL, Simpson SH, et al. Pharmacist care of patients with heart failure: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med 2008;168(7):687-94. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.168.7.687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18413550.

592. Kang JE, Han NY, Oh JM, et al. Pharmacist-involved care for patients with heart failure and acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review with qualitative and quantitative meta-analysis. J Clin Pharm Ther 2016;41(2):145-57. DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12367. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26954666.

593. Vedel I, Khanassov V. Transitional Care for Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ann Fam Med 2015;13(6):562-71. DOI: 10.1370/afm.1844. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26553896.

594. Feltner C, Jones CD, Cene CW, et al. Transitional care interventions to prevent readmissions for persons with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2014;160(11):774-84. DOI: 10.7326/M14-0083. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24862840.

595. Pocock SJ, Ariti CA, McMurray JJ, et al. Predicting survival in heart failure: a risk score based on 39 372 patients from 30 studies. Eur Heart J 2013;34(19):1404-13. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs337. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23095984.

596. Rahimi K, Bennett D, Conrad N, et al. Risk prediction in patients with heart failure: a systematic review and analysis. JACC Heart Fail 2014;2(5):440-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.04.008. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194291.

597. Ouwerkerk W, Voors AA, Zwinderman AH. Factors influencing the predictive power of models for predicting mortality and/or heart failure hospitalization in patients with heart failure. JACC Heart Fail 2014;2(5):429-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.04.006. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194294.

598. Lambrinou E, Kalogirou F, Lamnisos D, et al. Effectiveness of heart failure management programmes with nurse-led discharge planning in reducing re-admissions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud 2012;49(5):610-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.11.002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22196054.

599. Fergenbaum J, Bermingham S, Krahn M, et al. Care in the Home for the Management of Chronic Heart Failure: Systematic Review and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2015;30(4 Suppl 1):S44-S51. DOI: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000235. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658188.

600. Shaw RJ, McDuffie JR, Hendrix CC, et al. Effects of Nurse-Managed Protocols in the Outpatient Management of Adults with Chronic Conditions. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs; 2013 [cited: 2017-01-03].

601. Bryant-Lukosius D, Carter N, Reid K, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of clinical nurse specialist-led hospital to home transitional care: a systematic review. J Eval Clin Pract 2015;21(5):763-81. DOI: 10.1111/jep.12401. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26135524.

602. Inglis SC, Clark RA, Dierckx R, et al. Structured telephone support or non-invasive telemonitoring for patients with heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;(10). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26517969.

603. Kotb A, Cameron C, Hsieh S, et al. Comparative effectiveness of different forms of telemedicine for individuals with heart failure (HF): a systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLoS One 2015;10(2):e0118681. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118681. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25714962.

604. Flodgren G, Rachas A, Farmer AJ, et al. Interactive telemedicine: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;9:CD002098. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002098.pub2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343551.

605. Kitsiou S, Pare G, Jaana M. Effects of home telemonitoring interventions on patients with chronic heart failure: an overview of systematic reviews. J Med Internet Res 2015;17(3):e63. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.4174. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25768664.

606. Swindle JP, Chan WW, Waltman JK, et al. Evaluation of mortality and readmissions following hospitalization with heart failure. Curr Med Res Opin 2016;1-11. DOI: 10.1080/03007995.2016.1205972. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348501.

607. Arundel C, Lam PH, Khosla R, et al. Association of 30-Day All-Cause Readmission with Long-Term Outcomes in Hospitalized Older Medicare Beneficiaries with Heart Failure. Am J Med 2016;129(11):1178-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.06.018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27401949.

608. Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Diabetes. Strukturierte Schulungsprogramme - Langfassung, 1. Auflage. Version 4. 2012 [cited: 2016-07-13]. DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000295. http://doi.org/10.6101/AZQ/000295.

609. Angermann CE, Stork S, Gelbrich G, et al. Mode of action and effects of standardized collaborative disease management on mortality and morbidity in patients with systolic heart failure: the Interdisciplinary Network for Heart Failure (INH) study. Circ Heart Fail 2012;5(1):25-35. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.111.962969. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21956192.

610. Peters-Klimm F, Campbell S, Hermann K, et al. Case management for patients with chronic systolic heart failure in primary care: the HICMan exploratory randomised controlled trial. Trials 2010;11:56. DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478035.

611. Zugck C, Nelles M, Frankenstein L, et al. Telemedizin reduziert bei Patienten mit chronischer Herzinsuffizienz zusätzlich zur optimierten medikamentösen Therapie signifikant die Krankenhausverweildauer. Clin Res Cardiol 2008;97(1 Suppl):V1734.

612. Hindricks G, Taborsky M, Glikson M, et al. Implant-based multiparameter telemonitoring of patients with heart failure (IN-TIME): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2014;384(9943):583-90. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61176-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131977.

613. Koehler F, Winkler S, Schieber M, et al. Impact of remote telemedical management on mortality and hospitalizations in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure: the telemedical interventional monitoring in heart failure study. Circulation 2011;123(17):1873-80. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.018473. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21444883.

614. Bohm M, Drexler H, Oswald H, et al. Fluid status telemedicine alerts for heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Heart J 2016;37(41):3154-63. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw099. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26984864.

615. Driscoll A, Currey J, Tonkin A, et al. Nurse-led titration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, and angiotensin receptor blockers for people with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;12:CD009889. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009889.pub2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689943.

616. Koberich S, Lohrmann C, Mittag O, et al. Effects of a hospital-based education programme on self-care behaviour, care dependency and quality of life in patients with heart failure--a randomised controlled trial. J Clin Nurs 2015;24(11-12):1643-55. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.12766. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25661470.

617. Cleland JG, Louis AA, Rigby AS, et al. Noninvasive home telemonitoring for patients with heart failure at high risk of recurrent admission and death: the Trans-European Network-Home-Care Management System (TEN-HMS) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45(10):1654-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15893183.

618. Freund T, Peters-Klimm F, Boyd CM, et al. Medical Assistant-Based Care Management for High-Risk Patients in Small Primary Care Practices: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. Ann Intern Med 2016;164(5):323-30. DOI: 10.7326/M14-2403. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26833209.

619. Koehler F, Winkler S, Schieber M, et al. Telemedicine in heart failure: pre-specified and exploratory subgroup analyses from the TIM-HF trial. Int J Cardiol 2012;161(3):143-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.09.007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982700.

620. Luthje L, Vollmann D, Seegers J, et al. A randomized study of remote monitoring and fluid monitoring for the management of patients with implanted cardiac arrhythmia devices. Europace 2015;17(8):1276-81. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euv039. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25983310.

621. Abraham WT, Stevenson LW, Bourge RC, et al. Sustained efficacy of pulmonary artery pressure to guide adjustment of chronic heart failure therapy: complete follow-up results from the CHAMPION randomised trial. Lancet 2016;387(10017):453-61. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00723-0. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560249.

622. Minhas AM, Ahmed S, Khan MS, et al. Does Hemodynamic-Guided Heart Failure Management Reduce Hospitalization? A Systematic Review. Cureus 2017;9(4):e1161. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1161. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28507833.

zurück nach oben


Zurück zu den Patientenmaterialien | Weiter zu den Empfehlungen

zuletzt verändert: 23.04.2018 13:33